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    Etched in Metal and Stone: The Local Contexts of Holocaust Remembrance at Three Memorials
    (2022) Stern, Trevor; Gerstein, Linda
    Holocaust memorials' physical structures and interpretations are necessarily mediated and shaped by local contexts, including place and the particular time of construction. Three monuments from across a wide geographic and temporal range show the broad influence of local contexts on physical and rhetorical manifestations of Holocaust commemoration. The planners of the 1964 Monument to the Six Million Jewish Martyrs in Philadelphia made frequent references to Jewish history and religious principles, the triumphant establishment of Israel, and American patriotism. The 1990 Miami Beach Holocaust Memorial is seen by its architect, monument planners, and visitors as a place especially of mourning for those lost in the Holocaust, as well as a conduit for education, resonant with the vigorous focus on the Holocaust in academia during the 1980s. The 2005 Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin is considered by many to be an expression of German guilt for the Nazis' attempted genocide of the Jewish people, or even a tool for overcoming the nation's shame, after a West German historical reexamination of its Nazi past during the Historikerstreit and reunification. The memorials discussed demonstrate the extent to which the past takes a back seat to the present when events are being commemorated through physical structures.
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    The Third Rome Besieged: The Persecution, Division, and Revival of the Russian Orthodox Church from 1917-1943
    (2022) Haines, John Reed; Gerstein, Linda
    This thesis discusses the status and the use of the Russian Orthodox Church by both the invading Nazis and the Soviet Union in the opening two years of World War II. While the Russian Orthodox Church was once a significant part of the Tsarist state, the February and the October Revolutions saw an immediate reversal of fortune for the Church. What was once an extremely powerful and dominant organization within Russian society quickly fell into a nearly twenty-year period of extreme persecution, the aim of which was nothing less than the complete destruction of the Russian Orthodox Church's power and its place in society. As the Russian Orthodox Church was being persecuted in the Soviet Union, the Nazi Party was securing its stranglehold on political power in Germany. There, despite mixed views on Christianity among the Nazi elite, Christianity remained a powerful force. Consequently, Nazi leaders including Adolf Hitler and Alfred Rosenberg had to temper their assertions about Christianity, going so far as to present themselves as its champions. Germany during the 1930s saw a gradual weakening of Christianity's place in national politics while simultaneously seeing it used instrumentally by the Nazi regime as a vector to exert social control. With the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union in opening years of World War II, Nazi occupation force had to manage a protracted conflict and a huge Russian civilian population that came under its control. The person in charge of the Nazi-occupied Eastern territories, Alfred Rosenberg, sought to use collaborationist Russian Orthodox clergy to cement Nazi rule by means of fostering the revival of religion in the occupied territories. These religious revivals became known to the Soviet leadership, which recognized the inherent threat posed by a popular Christian religious revival supported by the Nazi occupation force. Soviet authorities responded by introducing a slow, limited restoration of the Russian Orthodox Church's hierarchy and the Church's place in society. This restoration would increase in pace and scope as the war progressed, peaking with the start of the Soviet counteroffensive in 1943. The culmination of this religious restoration occurred when Soviet authorities approved and supported the restoration of the Moscow Patriarch in September 1943. This action reversed over twenty years of intense, often violent anti-clerical and pro-atheistic Soviet policies, and was intended solely to counter the Nazi occupation force's campaign aimed at coopting the loyalty of the Russian Orthodox Church's laity and encouraging their submission to Nazi authority.
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    A Contradictory Subject: Reform, Resistance, and Holy Women in Early Modern Spain
    (2022) Scully, Kathleen; Graham, Lisa Jane, 1963-
    In 1517, Martin Luther, a German priest, nailed a document to the door of All Saints Church. This document, entitled Ninety-Five Theses, laid out corruption within the Catholic Church, and caused an immediate uproar across Europe. Luther and his fellow reformers suggested massive changes in the structure and practice of the clergy, leading to a schism from the Catholic Church known as the Protestant Reformation. In response, the Church instituted a variety of reforms of its own, referred to as the Counter-Reformation. The impacts of the Counter-Reformation were broad and far-reaching; this thesis deals primarily with their effects on holy women in sixteenth and seventeenth century Spain. In this era, holy women were subject to increasingly harsh regulations: their already limited ability to move throughout Spain was further restricted, and their ability to preach publicly curtailed. Prior to the Counter-Reformation, mystics and beatas, or laywomen who shared their holy visions, were tolerated, but in the late 1500s and early 1600s, these women were persecuted more intensely, and enclosure within a convent became the only respectable option for holy women. Even when safely enclosed, holy women were subject to surveillance by their confessors and fellow nuns. In addition to this external surveillance, they were encouraged to closely monitor their own internal thoughts for signs of sin. If a holy woman gained enough power to influence to threaten the male authority of the Catholic Church, she was reprimanded, and in serious cases, sent to the Inquisition. Holy women not only faced restrictions, but combated them. Their resistance becomes clear in multiple arenas: namely the convent, recogimiento (convent for penitent women), galera (women's prison), and vida (a nun's autobiography). In these arenas, holy women both conformed to patriarchal expectations and subverted them. I argue that while holy women participated in and at times initiated the discipline of women who broke gender norms, they also repeatedly demonstrated their impulse to care for other women. This thesis tracks these contradictory impulses to punish and protect through Inquisition records, artwork, and the correspondence and autobiographies of nuns themselves.
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    "Hamburgers over pupusas?… Never!" : Tracing Personal Rebukes of American Imperial Intervention in the Salvadoran Civil War
    (2022) Jovel, Rafael; Friedman, Andrew, 1974-; Rosas, Marlen
    Since the 19th century, the United States has embarked on various interventions around the world to maintain an empire of influence and elevate its status to that of a global superpower. This was especially common in Latin America. In Central America specifically under the Cold War politic of the late 1970s, the victory of the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, coupled with a burgeoning leftist guerrilla movement in El Salvador, set the stage for American intervention in the Salvadoran Civil War. The American imperial intervention would manifest as the mass funding, arming, and training of the Salvadoran Army, creating a setup for mass civilian violence in the country throughout the war. This, coupled with American immigration policy denying Salvadorans legal access to the potential refuge of the United States, shaped and carved Salvadoran and Salvadoran American cultural identity. Tracing these identities as a reaction, a response, and sometimes a rebuke of the American intervention allows us to examine how American imperial intervention reflects onto the individual, an important scale to tackle in a realm that often looks at policy and its effect as a monolith.
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    From Orphan, to Citizen, to Transnational Adoptee: The Origins of the U.S.-Colombian Adoption Industry and the Emergence of Adoptee Counternarratives
    (2022) Kawan-Hemler, Collin; Rosas, Marlen; Graham, Lisa Jane, 1963-
    Roughly 1.2 million residents of the United States trace their ancestry to Colombia. They constitute one of the largest communities of South Americans in metropolitan areas like New York City and Miami. Accounts of this diasporic group often exclude a relatively small but significant minority: those who came to the U.S through transnational adoption. Likewise in Colombia, children who were adopted abroad and the families who lost them are mostly absent from the national imaginary. No single monograph has covered the history of the adoption of Colombian children by U.S. citizens. This thesis is a project of transnational history that demonstrates how crises of social reproduction in both countries converged to create an adoption industry that continues to send hundreds of Colombian children to the U.S. annually. I contextualize the origins of U.S-Colombian adoptions with the emergence of the National Front regime in Colombia, discourses of population control from the 1960s, and conflict between the state and the Catholic Church over control of the family. I argue that these processes are essential to understanding how like-minded Americans and Colombians created a transnational adoption industry that made Colombian children "adoptable" for tens of thousands of U.S. adoptive parents over the last 50 years.