Browsing by Subject "Narration (Rhetoric) -- Psychological aspects"
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- ItemBicultural Identity Exploration(2011) Dhadvai, Sandeep; Lilgendahl, JenniferThis study sought to understand the process by which people formulate their bicultural identity as measured by BII. The narrative approach was utilized to investigate positive exploration as the process by which people form optimally integrated bicultural identities. Openness to experience and parental autonomy support were also tested as predictors of both exploration and BII. Participants in this study completed measures of demographics, BII, parental autonomy support, personality, and openness to experience facets before completing family and college narratives about bicultural identity exploration. Results indicated the presence of a relationship between openness to experience and both exploration and BII. Parental autonomy support was also predictive of BII. Analysis of the narratives showed correlations between exploration in both settings and also a relationship between past event valence and conclusion valence in both narratives. Being multiracial was the only predictor of positive exploration.
- ItemBicultural Identity Exploration: Examining Bicultural Identity Exploration through Narratives(2011) Sadarangani, Sneha; Lilgendahl, JenniferBicultural students from Haverford College were assessed for their level of identity exploration and Bicultural Identity Integration (BII). Participants were required to provide narratives of two experiences that triggered exploration of their bicultural identity within two different contexts, the family and college environment. Their level of exploration was evaluated from their narratives and correlated with their score on the BII scale. We predicted that participants who exhibited high exploration and a positive resolution at the end of their narrative would have high BII. Also, participants who exhibited openness to experience would have high BII and this would be mediated by positive narrative exploration. Moreover, high parental autonomy support would be correlated with high BII and this would be mediated by positive narrative exploration. However, the data failed to support our primary hypothesis and we were unable to find a relationship between BII and narrative exploration. Since we were unable to prove our mediation hypothesis, we were unable to effectively analyze the other two main hypotheses. However, we found some significant correlations. Openness and maternal autonomy support were both correlated with narrative exploration and greater negative affect in the college narratives was associated with lower BII.
- ItemBicultural Identity Exploration: Narrating Identity Exploration in Family and College Contexts(2011) Vickery, Simon; Lilgendahl, JenniferThe present study examined the relationship between identity exploration and Bicultural Identity Integration in narratives from family and college contexts. We hypothesized that higher levels of identity exploration and positive narrative endings would be associated with higher levels of Bicultural Identity Integration, and that this relationship would be mediated in part by Parental Autonomy Support and Openness to experience. We did not find statistical support for the relationship between identity exploration and Bicultural Identity Integration; however, we found that Openness and maternal Autonomy Support were associated with BII Harmony, and limited support for a positive relationship between Openness and identity exploration. These results may indicate that a portion of the bicultural individuals in our sample were experiencing identity foreclosure. It is also possible that our study was limited by methodological errors and small sample size. The utility of linguistic analysis using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count program is discussed.
- ItemDepartures: the Relation of Master Narrative Deviations to the Self(2013) Szymanowski, Kathryn; Lilgendahl, JenniferBuilding on research examining the role of cultural and social forces in shaping narrative, this study examined the content of master narrative deviations, as well as the interrelationship between such deviations, experiences of telling others about them, and personality characteristics. Seventy-eight participants provided narratives of master narrative deviations and of telling such deviations. They also completed Loevinger’s ego development task and several measures of well-being. The results suggest that feelings of deviating from master narratives occur in a wider variety of domains than previous studies have suggested. They also suggest that feeling silenced may spur processes of ego development. Further, ego level may be important in determining the effects of telling experiences on narrative identity. For example, a positive telling experience seems to promote counter narrative development in individuals with low ego levels; the same effect is not present in individuals with higher ego levels. Findings are discussed in light of the need for more research on how individual differences affect identity processes.
- ItemEntwined Consciousness: The Internalized External Narrative of H.G. Wells’ The Time Machine(2013) Kelly, Brighid; Boone, Alice
- Item"I, Though, Don't Quite Fit the Mold": Individual Differences in the Narration and Processing of Master Narrative Deviations(2013) Alpert, Elizabeth; Lilgendahl, JenniferThis study investigates individual differences in processing and narrating master narrative deviations (MNDs), or having diverged in some way from that which is considered normal, expected, or accepted by society. Participants provided a written narrative of an MND experience, as well as answering questions about their feelings surrounding their MND and their experiences telling their story of MND to others. Participants also completed measures of ego development and well-being. Results demonstrated various associations of feelings of being silenced and telling experience positivity with MND narrative qualities, and between these variables and well-being as an outcome. Ego development moderated some of those relationships. Exploratory analyses also revealed differences in experiences and expressions of MND across varying types of MND. This study provides insight into personality-related and social factors that influence how people process and narrate MND experiences, which are considered to be universal to some extent, as well as how interactions among these variables relate to well-being as an outcome.
- ItemIdentity Development and Intergenerational Conflict in Bicultural Emerging Adults : A Narrative Approach(2010) Pacas, Laura; Lilgendahl, JenniferThis study examines the relationship between bicultural identity integration (BII) and parental autonomy support as mediated by intergenerational conflict. Utilizing the narrative approach, we examine if making meaning of conflicts facilitates levels of BII in emerging adults. Participants completed measures of BII, parental autonomy support, intergenerational conflict, and acculturation style of their parents. Subjects then wrote a narrative about a cultural conflict that they have experienced with their parent(s). The narratives were coded for exploration, resolution, and growth. Results indicate that only maternal autonomy support was correlated with aspects of BII. Paternal and maternal autonomy support was negatively correlated with intergenerational conflict. Furthermore, narrative characteristics were not correlated with BII, though they were correlated with conflict. Acculturation was also seen as a large predictor of conflict, more conflict being reported in parents with a separated acculturative style than integrated or non-immigrant parents. We controlled for neuroticism in all our analyses.
- ItemMaster Narrative Deviations: Narratives of Experience and Telling, and their Impact on Identity(2013) Marsden, Emma; Lilgendahl, JenniferThe present research aimed to explore the ways in which people narrate and understand instances of deviating from master narratives--cultural scripts, social norms, or majority identity categories. A sample of 78 undergraduate students completed a survey, which included a narrative of a master narrative deviation, a narrative of an experience telling that deviation, a number of questions related to those narratives and several other measures including ego development and well-being. Narratives were coded for a variety of characteristics. As hypothesized, feeling silenced and the positivity of a telling experience were associated with several qualities of the narratives. Ego development moderated the relationships between feeling silenced and both presence of master narrative and positive meaning making. The relationships between positivity of the telling experience and both development of counter narrative and presence of vulnerability were also moderated by ego development. Future research can continue to investigate the ways in which silencing and telling experiences effect the construction of narratives and meaning made from experiences. The importance of master narrative deviation experiences to narrative identity can also be expanded upon in future research.
- ItemRepressive Coping and Negative Events: Emotional Processing in Narrative Identity(2011) Ardila, Christina; Lilgendahl, JenniferRepressive copers are characterized by low levels of trait anxiety and high levels social desirability. They actively avoid attending to, processing, and recalling, emotionally triggering self-threatening stimuli. Though recent work has explored repressive coping at the narrative level specifically, the purpose of our study was to assess the effects of repressive coping on well-being and transformational processing at both the narrative level and in daily processing. Furthermore we explored the relationship between daily coping and narrative level coping. Our study was comprised of self-report measures and included a personality survey component, a seven-day daily component, and a narrative component. We found the narratives of repressive copers were significantly positively related with a more positive ending. Likewise repressors were less likely to think about negative events at the daily level and were less impacted by negative events in their daily moods. From this we found daily thinking mediated the relationship between repressive coping and narrative ending. In regards to well-being, we found repressors maintained higher levels of life satisfaction and eudiamonic well-being. These connections may suggest repressive coping may be a pervasive and engrained personality characteristic that impacts the processing of both minor and major life events, and furthermore the development of personal identity.
- ItemRepressive Coping and Negative Events: Emotional Processing in Narrative Identity and Daily Life(2011) Connochie, Daniel M.; Lilgendahl, JenniferGiven the debate in the literature surrounding repressive coping, its relative benefits and detriments, and the cognitive mechanism in which it manifests itself, the current study examined this personality type in relation to processing of events, both daily events and the narrative processing of major life events. After an initial survey which included measures repressive coping, participants completed surveys each night for a week which asked them to examine positive and negative events in their day, assessing how much these events affected them, how they coped with negative events, and what their overall daily affect was. For the second part of the study, participants came into the lab to complete narratives of a positive event and a negative event, as well as measures of coping strategies (the same measure used in daily sampling), hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Narratives were coded for exploration, positive ending, growth, and memory specificity. It was found that repressive copers have more positive endings to their narratives, think about daily negative events less, have less daily negative affect, and report higher overall well-being. Discussion centers around repressors' avoidance of negative information about themselves, and well-being at the daily and narrative levels of event processing.
- ItemRepressive Coping and Negative Events: Emotional Processing of Difficult Events through Narrative(2011) Jordan, Molly; Lilgendahl, JenniferThis study used narratives of difficult life events in combination with a daily sampling method to understand repressive coping on daily and long term levels. The connections between repressive coping, transformational processing (as defined by growth, exploration, and positive ending), and well-being were explored to see if repressive coping had an effect on well-being or an individual's narrative identity. Coping strategies for daily negative events were examined to see if repressors utilized specific strategies for daily coping. Results indicated that there was no correlation between growth or exploration and repressive coping, although there was a positive correlation for positive ending mediated by a lack of thought by negative events. However, against all hypotheses, repressive coping was significantly correlated with all measured forms of well-being. Finally, repressive coping was negatively correlated with all coping strategies, indicating an overall lack of processing of negative events.
- ItemRepressive Coping and Negative Life Events: The Outcomes of Affective Style on Daily and Narrative Processing(2011) Carpenter, Joseph; Lilgendahl, JenniferBoth regulating negative emotion and confronting it in a structured and positive manner have been associated with positive psychological outcomes. This study sought to investigate what sort of balance between regulating and acknowledging such affect is healthiest by looking at the relationship between a repressive coping style, reaction to daily life stressors and the narrative processing of a difficult life event. By looking at these relationships it also examined the degree to which there are distinct psychological channels for processing negative events at the level of short-term responses and the long-term construction of a narrative identity. Results showed that a repressive coping style was largely unrelated to narrative processing, except that repressors narrative contained more positive resolution. This relationship was mediated (at the marginally significant level) by the effect of daily stressors on thinking, suggesting that similar affective tendencies effect processing of events at different levels. In addition, generally reacting less strongly to negative events was associated with more growth and positive resolution in narratives, demonstrating that avoiding negativity at the day to day level is associated with positive outcomes beyond daily affect.
- ItemSexual Fluidity: Identity Processes and Exploration in the Female Narrative(2012) Bragg, Hilary; Lilgendahl, JenniferPast research suggests that female sexuality may be more culturally and socially constructed, exhibiting more fluidity, than male sexuality. Until recently, little research has included women in sexuality research, claiming that their sexualities are too complicated. The present study attempted to examine sexual fluidity in women, and how this concept is incorporated into the process of identity formation and development through the identity processes of exploration and commitment. The narrative approach to identity was utilized — in order to grasp the individuality in experiences of sexuality — along with measures of sexual fluidity, psychological well-being, identity exploration and commitment and other identity development measures. Results suggest varied experiences of sexual fluidity and the importance of identity exploration and commitment in achieving high well-being. As hypothesized, fluidity was positively correlated with exploration. Furthermore, well-being was positively associated with both exploration and commitment. Finally, a moderated relationship between Identity Fluidity, exploration and well-being was observed, such that while independent of well-being in the presence of exploration, fluidity in the absence of exploration could be detrimental for one's well-being. A theoretical model of the relationship between two potential types of sexual fluidity, exploration and well-being is proposed and discussed in light of our emerging pattern of results. Implications, limitations and future directions are discussed.
- ItemThe Influence of Conversations through Transformational Processing: Narrative Identity Formation and Well-being(2010) Marinucci, DaniellePast research has shown that there are qualitative differences between processing positive and negative life events. This study attempted to test the influence of a conversation on the way in which individuals make sense of their life events. We predicted that the conversation would impact how individuals' narrative identities are transformed by the events as well as the degree to which individuals' well-being increased or decreased over two weeks. Furthermore, we expected that the personality of the individual processing the event would impact well-being two weeks after the conversation. Although the predicted effects on well-being and narrative identity were not observed, some findings lend support to the study's main hypotheses. This study has just begun to examine how conversations affect narrative identity and long-term well-being. More research should continue to focus on this topic to determine the most effective ways of processing positive events and working through negative events.
- ItemTransformational Processing of Negative Events: An Experimental Manipulation(2012) Tan, Joseph; Lilgendahl, JenniferTransformational processing has been defined by past narrative identity research on negative event processing as a distinctive combination of the processes of exploration and resolution. The current study aimed to test the effect of transformational processing of negative events on well-being. Through an expressive writing framework, subjects processed a negative event through three days of writing either in a transformational manner (composed of both exploration and resolution), through exploration only, or through resolution only. Results showed no significant effects on well-being, but also showed that the transformational narratives had patterns of growth and positive emotion words over the course of the three writing days that were distinct from the patterns in the other writing conditions.
- ItemTransformational Processing of Negative Events: Implications for Well-Being(2012) Galef, Nicolas; Lilgendahl, JenniferThe current study constituted an investigation into narrative processing of negative events, using an expressive writing paradigm (Pennebaker & Beall, 1986), in terms of its effects on an individual's well-being. This study was among the first to experimentally prime distinct narrative processing styles, including transformational processing (Pals, 2006a; 2006b; 2006c). It was hypothesized that transformational processing would lead to the greatest increases in well-being, and that greater presence of personal growth and emotional complexity in written samples would mediate that effect. Participants were instructed to write about a particularly traumatic event from their past in one of three narrative processing styles (vs. a neutral writing task for control subjects) during three writing sessions taking place over three consecutive days. Well-being measures were recorded before writing, and then both one day and one week following the end of the writing sessions. The collected narratives were coded for the presence of exploratory narrative processing, coherent positive resolution, and statements of personal growth. Analyses revealed no effect of transformational processing on well-being, but it did establish a strong causal relationship with growth. The implications for the relationship between transformational processing and narrative growth, which had previously only been shown through correlational data, are discussed, along with suggestions for future research to improve upon the current study.
- ItemTransformative Processing of Negative Events Through Expressive Writing(2012) Plowden, Marissa K.; Compton, Rebecca J. (Rebecca Jean); Lilgendahl, JenniferThe aim of this study was to utilized Pennebaker and Beall's (1986) previously developed expressive writing paradigm and Pals'(2006b) concept of positive selftransformation to try to induce heightened psychological well-being through writing about negative events. Specifically, we developed three separate writing prompts that targeted the two separate components of processing (exploratory processing and coherent positive resolution) as well as a hybrid prompt that utilized elements of both in an effort to induce transformational processing, with the idea that this combination prompt would induce "optimal", or eudaimonic well-being. Overall, our results did not support our hypotheses; however, our combination prompt did produce narratives that scored significantly higher in growth than either the "explore" or the "resolve" prompt. Additionally, narratives in the Explore and Combination conditions showed a higher amount of insight cognition words than the Resolve condition. While these findings are not conclusive with regard to the influence of different writing styles on psychological well-being, they are conclusive in showing that growth is a function of both emotional exploration and positive closure and that this type of writing prompt has the potential to induce a significant positive change in an individual's self-identity.