Browsing by Subject "Identity (Psychology)"
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- ItemA Narrative Approach to Bicultural Identity Development(2009) Levenson, Chloe M; Lilgendahl, JenniferThis study examines bicultural identity integration and development among bicultural college students. Participants completed measures of bicultural identity integration (measuring concepts of bicultural distance and conflict), ethnic and U.S. identity, scales of well-being and wrote three biculturally significant memories. Narratives were coded for various themes; integral narrative coding variables to our study goals were exploration, growth, emotional valence of narrative ending, redemption sequences, bicultural conflict/uncertainty/confusion and bicultural distance. Results indicated that bicultural distance was associated with patterns of negative autobiographical reasoning. Bicultural conflict was negatively correlated with emotional valence of narrative endings and past conflict. Furthermore, a hierarchical moderated multiple regression demonstrated that individuals with past bicultural conflict and high levels of narrative exploration were more biculturally integrated than individuals with past conflict who lacked narrative exploration. Moreover, by taking a developmental perspective that integrated measures of past and present bicultural experiences, it became clear that conflict has the potential to be a positive influence on bicultural identity development.
- ItemBicultural Identity Exploration(2011) Dhadvai, Sandeep; Lilgendahl, JenniferThis study sought to understand the process by which people formulate their bicultural identity as measured by BII. The narrative approach was utilized to investigate positive exploration as the process by which people form optimally integrated bicultural identities. Openness to experience and parental autonomy support were also tested as predictors of both exploration and BII. Participants in this study completed measures of demographics, BII, parental autonomy support, personality, and openness to experience facets before completing family and college narratives about bicultural identity exploration. Results indicated the presence of a relationship between openness to experience and both exploration and BII. Parental autonomy support was also predictive of BII. Analysis of the narratives showed correlations between exploration in both settings and also a relationship between past event valence and conclusion valence in both narratives. Being multiracial was the only predictor of positive exploration.
- ItemBicultural Identity Exploration: Examining Bicultural Identity Exploration through Narratives(2011) Sadarangani, Sneha; Lilgendahl, JenniferBicultural students from Haverford College were assessed for their level of identity exploration and Bicultural Identity Integration (BII). Participants were required to provide narratives of two experiences that triggered exploration of their bicultural identity within two different contexts, the family and college environment. Their level of exploration was evaluated from their narratives and correlated with their score on the BII scale. We predicted that participants who exhibited high exploration and a positive resolution at the end of their narrative would have high BII. Also, participants who exhibited openness to experience would have high BII and this would be mediated by positive narrative exploration. Moreover, high parental autonomy support would be correlated with high BII and this would be mediated by positive narrative exploration. However, the data failed to support our primary hypothesis and we were unable to find a relationship between BII and narrative exploration. Since we were unable to prove our mediation hypothesis, we were unable to effectively analyze the other two main hypotheses. However, we found some significant correlations. Openness and maternal autonomy support were both correlated with narrative exploration and greater negative affect in the college narratives was associated with lower BII.
- ItemBicultural Identity Exploration: Narrating Identity Exploration in Family and College Contexts(2011) Vickery, Simon; Lilgendahl, JenniferThe present study examined the relationship between identity exploration and Bicultural Identity Integration in narratives from family and college contexts. We hypothesized that higher levels of identity exploration and positive narrative endings would be associated with higher levels of Bicultural Identity Integration, and that this relationship would be mediated in part by Parental Autonomy Support and Openness to experience. We did not find statistical support for the relationship between identity exploration and Bicultural Identity Integration; however, we found that Openness and maternal Autonomy Support were associated with BII Harmony, and limited support for a positive relationship between Openness and identity exploration. These results may indicate that a portion of the bicultural individuals in our sample were experiencing identity foreclosure. It is also possible that our study was limited by methodological errors and small sample size. The utility of linguistic analysis using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count program is discussed.
- ItemDepartures: the Relation of Master Narrative Deviations to the Self(2013) Szymanowski, Kathryn; Lilgendahl, JenniferBuilding on research examining the role of cultural and social forces in shaping narrative, this study examined the content of master narrative deviations, as well as the interrelationship between such deviations, experiences of telling others about them, and personality characteristics. Seventy-eight participants provided narratives of master narrative deviations and of telling such deviations. They also completed Loevinger’s ego development task and several measures of well-being. The results suggest that feelings of deviating from master narratives occur in a wider variety of domains than previous studies have suggested. They also suggest that feeling silenced may spur processes of ego development. Further, ego level may be important in determining the effects of telling experiences on narrative identity. For example, a positive telling experience seems to promote counter narrative development in individuals with low ego levels; the same effect is not present in individuals with higher ego levels. Findings are discussed in light of the need for more research on how individual differences affect identity processes.
- ItemExpanding the identity: Identity formation and self-expansion in romantic relationships(2010) Farrell, Allison K.These two studies explored the association between self-expansion and identity formation in initial attraction, during close relationships, and after relationship dissolution. The first study examined self-expansion and identity formation in 18-24 year olds during relationships and after breakup using a three wave longitudinal questionnaire study. We predicted that aspects of identity formation and self-expansion would be associated during the relationship, and that self-expansion prior to breakup would be negatively associated with identity clarity after relationship dissolution. While identity formation and self-expansion were found to be strongly associated during the relationship, both cross-sectionally and over time, self-expansion levels had no association with post-breakup identity clarity. The second study investigated the moderating role of identity status on the relationship between similarity and liking in first impressions based on methodology developed by Aron et al. (2006). We predicted individuals high in identity exploration, particularly those high in exploration and low in identity commitment, would show a greater preference for dissimilar others; however, no significant effects were found. Future research should work to better understand when individuals are attracted to dissimilar others, examine which aspects of the self are affected by breakup, and identify which dimensions of identity are most impacted by close relationships.
- ItemHow Do I Reconcile My Two Cultures? Narrative Approaches to Bicultural Identity Integration and Development(2009) Festa, Lindsay; Lilgendahl, JenniferThe formation of bicultural identity is investigated using the narrative identity approach. Previous research has suggested that two dichotomies exist in bicultural individuals that help to form their identity: conflict vs. harmony and distance vs. integration. Subjects were asked to respond to three narrative prompts, which in turn were coded for different variables, including identity exploration and growth. Specifically, conflicted and distanced individuals were less likely to explore their identity and/or grow from previous experiences. However, contrary to previous research, past conflict was found to be a springboard for bicultural identity integration only if accompanied by exploration. Limitations of the current study, as well as directions for future research, are discussed.
- Item"I, Though, Don't Quite Fit the Mold": Individual Differences in the Narration and Processing of Master Narrative Deviations(2013) Alpert, Elizabeth; Lilgendahl, JenniferThis study investigates individual differences in processing and narrating master narrative deviations (MNDs), or having diverged in some way from that which is considered normal, expected, or accepted by society. Participants provided a written narrative of an MND experience, as well as answering questions about their feelings surrounding their MND and their experiences telling their story of MND to others. Participants also completed measures of ego development and well-being. Results demonstrated various associations of feelings of being silenced and telling experience positivity with MND narrative qualities, and between these variables and well-being as an outcome. Ego development moderated some of those relationships. Exploratory analyses also revealed differences in experiences and expressions of MND across varying types of MND. This study provides insight into personality-related and social factors that influence how people process and narrate MND experiences, which are considered to be universal to some extent, as well as how interactions among these variables relate to well-being as an outcome.
- ItemIntersectional Identity: Psychological Well-Being of Queer of Color Individuals(2015) Diaz, Emily; Wang, Shu-wenRecent studies have focused on the ever growing field of identity development in specific cultural identifiers, such as sexual orientation and racial identity. By conducting a literature review of material pertaining to these areas of study, this article summarizes several key theories pertaining to the identity development of queer of color adolescents and emerging adults. By analyzing the potential combined effects of resilience, minority stress, identity development skills, and affirmation, new conclusions are drawn about what social interventions may help queer of color individuals develop social identities with greater ease. Potential conflicts of queer of color identity, such as sexual risk behavior and internalized homophobia, are discussed. The article ends by suggesting future directions of research so that more accurate, generalizable information may be gathered about this vastly expansive, under-examined field of anthropological and psychological study.
- ItemMaster Narrative Deviations: Narratives of Experience and Telling, and their Impact on Identity(2013) Marsden, Emma; Lilgendahl, JenniferThe present research aimed to explore the ways in which people narrate and understand instances of deviating from master narratives--cultural scripts, social norms, or majority identity categories. A sample of 78 undergraduate students completed a survey, which included a narrative of a master narrative deviation, a narrative of an experience telling that deviation, a number of questions related to those narratives and several other measures including ego development and well-being. Narratives were coded for a variety of characteristics. As hypothesized, feeling silenced and the positivity of a telling experience were associated with several qualities of the narratives. Ego development moderated the relationships between feeling silenced and both presence of master narrative and positive meaning making. The relationships between positivity of the telling experience and both development of counter narrative and presence of vulnerability were also moderated by ego development. Future research can continue to investigate the ways in which silencing and telling experiences effect the construction of narratives and meaning made from experiences. The importance of master narrative deviation experiences to narrative identity can also be expanded upon in future research.
- ItemNarratives of Bicultural Individuals: A Narrative Approach to the Development of Bicultural Identity Integration(2009) Rosenblum, Rena S; Lilgendahl, JenniferOur study used a narrative approach to the identity development of bicultural individuals. More specifically, we were interested in how bicultural individuals, who vary in the extent to which they feel bicultural conflict and distance, components of bicultural identity integration, tell their narratives of past biculturally significant experiences. Results showed that biculturally-distanced individuals were less likely to have narratives with exploration, growth, and redemption sequences. Biculturally-conflicted individuals were more likely to have present conflict in their memories and to end their narratives negatively. Furthermore, bicultural individuals who had past conflict and high exploration in their narratives were more likely to have an integrated bicultural identity. On the other hand, those who had past conflict and low exploration were more likely to have a distanced bicultural identity.
- ItemThe Influence of Conversations through Transformational Processing: Narrative Identity Formation and Well-being(2010) Marinucci, DaniellePast research has shown that there are qualitative differences between processing positive and negative life events. This study attempted to test the influence of a conversation on the way in which individuals make sense of their life events. We predicted that the conversation would impact how individuals' narrative identities are transformed by the events as well as the degree to which individuals' well-being increased or decreased over two weeks. Furthermore, we expected that the personality of the individual processing the event would impact well-being two weeks after the conversation. Although the predicted effects on well-being and narrative identity were not observed, some findings lend support to the study's main hypotheses. This study has just begun to examine how conversations affect narrative identity and long-term well-being. More research should continue to focus on this topic to determine the most effective ways of processing positive events and working through negative events.
- Item“This IS Who I Am:” The Influence of Social Context and Ego Development on the Racial Identity Choice of Multiracial Young Adults and the Implications for Well-being(2016) Suzuki, Rebecca; Lilgendahl, JenniferThis study was an exploratory analysis of how a specific personality factor (ego development) and contextual factor (racial compositions of social networks in childhood) contributes to the development of a racial identity in multiracial young adults, and furthermore, how this identity choice affects well-being. We applied Rockquemore & Brunsma’s (2002) Multidimensional Model of Biracial Identity to multiracial young adults (18-25) of many types of mixed backgrounds, and found that those who identified as Transcendent (e.g., someone who does not believe in racial in racial identities) were more likely to have grown up around people racially similar to them, while those who identified as Singular (e.g., someone who identifies as one race exclusively) were more likely to have lower ego development. Furthermore, we found that those who identified as Protean (e.g., someone who switches between different racial identifications) and as Singular were more likely to have lower well-being and those who identified as Validated Border (e.g., someone who had a uniquely multiracial identity that is validated by others) were more likely to have higher well-being, despite how they viewed their identity (measured using narrative qualities). Future research should continue to understand the multiracial experience as a whole by looking at other factors that contribute to racial identity development and how these identities relate to well-being.
- ItemTransformational Processing of Negative Events: An Experimental Manipulation(2012) Tan, Joseph; Lilgendahl, JenniferTransformational processing has been defined by past narrative identity research on negative event processing as a distinctive combination of the processes of exploration and resolution. The current study aimed to test the effect of transformational processing of negative events on well-being. Through an expressive writing framework, subjects processed a negative event through three days of writing either in a transformational manner (composed of both exploration and resolution), through exploration only, or through resolution only. Results showed no significant effects on well-being, but also showed that the transformational narratives had patterns of growth and positive emotion words over the course of the three writing days that were distinct from the patterns in the other writing conditions.
- ItemTransformational Processing of Negative Life Events Through Expressive Writing: An Experimental Manipulation(2012) Bass, Becca; Lilgendahl, JenniferThough a wealth of existing research demonstrates correlations between written narrative processing of negative events and various well-being outcomes, the current experimental manipulation pursues the issue of causality. 79 subjects were assigned to one of four writing conditions (explore, resolve, combination, and control), and those in the experimental conditions received different prompts to write about a centrally challenging life event for 15 minutes on each of the three consecutive writing days. While we failed to show a significant causal relationship between writing condition and any changes in our measures of well being over time, we did find a significant condition x day interaction on growth. This interaction showed an increase in growth over time unique to the combo condition, which suggests that exploring and then resolving produces the most growth. Because our study indicates that different prompted forms of processing do in fact encourage different outcomes, we hope that future longitudinal studies will be better able to address the long-term path and outcomes for different processing mechanisms.
- ItemTransformative Processing of Negative Events Through Expressive Writing(2012) Plowden, Marissa K.; Compton, Rebecca J. (Rebecca Jean); Lilgendahl, JenniferThe aim of this study was to utilized Pennebaker and Beall's (1986) previously developed expressive writing paradigm and Pals'(2006b) concept of positive selftransformation to try to induce heightened psychological well-being through writing about negative events. Specifically, we developed three separate writing prompts that targeted the two separate components of processing (exploratory processing and coherent positive resolution) as well as a hybrid prompt that utilized elements of both in an effort to induce transformational processing, with the idea that this combination prompt would induce "optimal", or eudaimonic well-being. Overall, our results did not support our hypotheses; however, our combination prompt did produce narratives that scored significantly higher in growth than either the "explore" or the "resolve" prompt. Additionally, narratives in the Explore and Combination conditions showed a higher amount of insight cognition words than the Resolve condition. While these findings are not conclusive with regard to the influence of different writing styles on psychological well-being, they are conclusive in showing that growth is a function of both emotional exploration and positive closure and that this type of writing prompt has the potential to induce a significant positive change in an individual's self-identity.