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- Item"Money don't get everything, that's true, but what it don't get, I can't use; I need money, that's what I want"(1963) Unger, Richard W.; MacCaffrey, Wallace T.
- ItemDifferential Disease Experience in the Atlantic Slave Trade: Malaria, Yellow Fever, and the Atlantic Plantation Complex(1999) Papay, John; Krippner, JamesHistorically, discussions of race and racism have shied away from science for fear that a biological acknowledgment of racial difference would engender scientific racism. These political and intellectual impediments to communication are only recently beginning to fade away, thereby enabling more integrated and complete discussions of these topics. Any analysis ofthe Atlantic slave trade necessarily addresses the issue of race through examining the racism exhibited by the system or the racial dynamic inherent at all stages of the trade; perhaps, recent trends in historical analysis may enable an interdisciplinary focus that provides a more thorough discussion of both. This study seeks to do just that: to unite the history of the Atlantic slave trade with studies of epidemiology and demography affecting the region. It analyzes the convergent histories of the Atlantic slave trade and disease, focusing on the two most significant cases, malaria and yellow fever. The differential incidences with which these diseases struck various human populations helped not only to influence nineteenth century racial discourse, but also to define European and African experiences in the slave trade; in very different ways, both groups succumbed to the ravages of these diseases: Europeans faced tremendous mortality in the Atlantic tropics and thus turned to Africans as a source of slave labor for their Atlantic plantations. This study contains several self-imposed limitations. Although it examines racial differences in terms of disease and effects of disease resistance, it does not address gendered differences in disease experience. The available records exhibit a strong male bias: women did not serve in the military during the Atlantic slave trade, and military records provide the best source of comparative records for European and African disease experiences. Women, European as well as African, had an important role in the Atlantic slave trade and disease impacted their lives greatly; European women often accompanied their husbands to live in Africa or the New World while African women traversed the Atlantic as slaves. Although simple numbers do nothing to diminish their experience, consistently twice as many men as women were brought to the New World as slaves. This study excludes analysis ofthe different ways women experienced disease only because women's disease history is not accessible given source limitations. This analysis also concentrates on the slave trade between West Africa and the Caribbean; it does not focus on the trade to North America. Although many Africans and their descendants served as slaves in the United States, their relatively high reproductive rates limited the scope ofNorth America's role in the Atlantic slave trade; no more than five percent of the slaves imported to the New World arrived in the North American colonies. Furthermore, although they both surfaced frequently, malaria and yellow fever did not play the same pivotal roles in North America as they did in the Caribbean. Finally, with minor exceptions, the available records limit this study to the experiences of the British during the slave trade; discussions of European disease experience will be based primarily upon British records. Although European nations did form distinct cultural and political entities, they were part of a unified disease environment and were equally sheltered from the African disease environment before the earliest European exploration in the late fifteenth century. Thus, the European, or at least Western European, experience is likely fairly accurately mirrored by the British experience. These self-imposed limitations reduce the scope of this study but do not necessarily detract from its findings. Examining the role of disease in history, however, faces numerous other limitations that shall be discussed in Chapter 1. That chapter begins by examining the historiographical foundations of both Atlantic Studies and historical epidemiology. It locates this thesis in a theoretical framework with roots tracing to the mid-twentieth century. Chapters 2 and 3 provide the historical and biological contexts that frame the analysis. Chapters 4 to 7 build on these foundations to address disease experience in West Africa and the West Indies, apparent racial differences in those disease experiences, and the implications of those differences for Africans in the slave trade. Chapter 4 examines disease incidence and the implications of disease among European troops serving in West Africa. Chapter 5 explores the mechanisms and effects of racially differentiated disease experience. Discussion of the biological basis of some forms of perceived racial differences occupies the remainder of this chapter; this analysis continues in Chapter 6, but focuses on the other side of the Atlantic. This chapter asserts that biologically based "racial" differences combined with European economic motives to drive the system of plantation slavery that flourished during the 18th century. While contributing to modem understandings of European and African disease experiences in the early modem Atlantic world, this thesis also addresses larger issues in historical scholarship involving biological influences on racial conceptualizations, the limits ofhistorical and epidemiological analysis, and the applicability and utility of scientific knowledge and methods to history.
- ItemA Level Playing Field: Black and Jewish Athletes and the 1936 Olympics(1999) Gottfried, Oliver
- ItemOf Life Underground: Nuclear Testing and the Rise of Ciguatera Poisoning in French Polynesia(2001) Brookner, Naomi; Jefferson, Paul
- ItemThe House that Customs Built: How Foreigners Found Their Place in the Chinese Maritime Customs Service(2001) Frang, Joanna L.; Smith, Paul J., 1947-In an address to his staff in 1926, the leader of the Chinese Maritime Customs Service asked: "And now as regards our employment here in China: What does it mean and why are we here at all?" This paper intends to study the circumstances that led the foreign leader of a branch of the Chinese Civil Service to ask such a question, and along the way, take note of the different ways the foreigners in his employ articulated answers to his query. The question of how a cadre of foreigners from Europe, the United States, and Japan had, by the 1920s, gained independent control of the Chinese Customs can be traced back in the history of China's foreign relations to at least the middle of the nineteenth century. Events over the next half-century as the Western world embarked on a conscious project of implanting itself onto the Chinese political and economic landscapes would only serve to further complicate the position occupied by foreign settlers in China. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the Chinese Maritime Customs Service came into existence as a foreign administered, yet nonetheless Chinese, institution. The CMCS began with the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 and was finalized in the settlement at Tientsin in 1859. Over the next fifty years of institutional expansion, the CMCS elaborated its administrative hierarchy and increased the scope of its effective regulatory control. After the Revolution in 1911, the CMCS gained an even greater control over Customs revenue and continued as a conspicuous foreign presence in China up to the end of the system of extraterritorial privileges in 1943. While the CMCS continued under foreign leadership until the founding of the People's Republic in 1949, its range of actions was much circumscribed as compared to the autonomous authority it held in China in years past. With a focus on the years from the turn of the century up through the end of the 1920s, this paper will study the strategies for institutional survival employed by the Chinese Maritime Customs Service. The CMCS justified its foreign face with assertions of Chinese moral and political immaturity and proposed to take up the role of teacher to child-like Chinese pupils. Continued claims of the Chinese inability to achieve moral improvement thus perpetually postponed the prospect of a fully Chinese CMCS and required an extended period of foreign tutelage. As will be seen, however, foreigners' continual interaction with their Chinese subordinates did not come without a cost. Deeply entangled in this process were the ways that the foreign CMCS staff simultaneously sought to procure and secure their own place in the CMCS. In order for foreigners in the CMCS to make sense of their position in China and answer the question, "why are we here at all?," however, they first had to determine the defining characteristics of who "we" were. Foreigners in the CMCS constructed their identities largely in contrast to the Chinese and social conventions in the treaty ports aimed to promote Western traditions and reject the influences of Chinese culture. Equally important to the foreign definition of identity, however, was the intricate social structure of the foreign community. While the hierarchical order of the CMCS created intractable rifts between upper and lower level employees, social stratification nonetheless provided a measure of cohesiveness in the foreign community that helped to differentiate Westerners from their Chinese neighbors and coworkers. When the terms used to define the distinct characteristics of those at the bottom of the foreign social structure began to overlap with the terms used to mark out the lines of racial difference however, racial and social boundaries began to blur. Their identities thus threatened, foreigners in the CMCS invested even more social energy into the maintenance of racial distinction. Throughout the first twenty-five years of the century, then, foreigners constructed themselves and the Customs Service in stark opposition to their Chinese hosts. By the late 1920s, however, the Chinese, and foreigners themselves, were no longer satisfied by the answers the CMCS and foreigners had proposed to the question of "What does it mean and why are we here at all?"
- ItemNation within a Nation: Incorporating the Jews into the Nation Francaise During the French Revolution(2001) Goldstein, Scott Jonathan; Graham, Lisa Jane, 1963-
- ItemA woman's nature : attitudes and identities of the bird hat debate at the turn of the 20th Century(2002) Birdsall, AmeliaAt the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, a group of American women engaged in debate and action against the killing of birds for hats, resulting in one of the first widespread environmental movements in this country and the birth of the Audubon Society. Through an examination of the women's magazine Harper's Bazar, this thesis explores why women wore bird hats, why they decided not to wear bird hats, and the outcomes of their actions. In the steps that women took to end the slaughter of birds, and in the arguments they proposed to support these steps women sought to balance the values of beauty and aesthetics with those of nature and morality. In this issue women exploited the tenets of the domestic sphere in order to create an emotional connection to the natural world and work for environmental protection.
- ItemThe Service of an Ideology: Bloomsbury in the 1930s(2002) Kaplan, Molly; Gerstein, Linda; Graham, Lisa Jane, 1963-Bloomsbury experienced the political atmosphere of the 1930s as an attack upon civilization. "A struggle is taking place," Leonard Woolf wrote, "in the heart of society, and instinctively the barbarians throw the whole of their weight upon the side of barbarianism." Bloomsbury resisted the pull of barbarism by introducing a critical, pacific voice that countered the jingoistic and belligerent tone of European nations. Its members expressed this alternative resistance through an examination of "civilization." They cast off the layers of nationalistic rhetoric attached to the concept and introduced a revised notion of civilization that adhered to the Bloomsbury pacific philosophy. Because Bloomsbury's pacific ideology countered the mainstream period's aggressive and fearful tone, scholars tend to suggest that the group was silenced into dissolution by the force of events in the 1930s. As I will argue, however, the threat to civilization, the tensions and anxieties which seemed to sweep people into irrationality and violence compelled Bloomsbury to express even more fervently and clearly what its members had always believed. Bloomsbury, so far from being silenced, located in its particular focus upon "civilization" a means of expression and action in accordance with its ideology.
- ItemIf these walls could talk : museum interpretation in theory and practice(2002) Preiss, Rebecca B.; Lapsansky-Werner, EmmaThis thesis is an exploration of interpretation at Historic House Museums in the Philadelphia region. Interpretation is the process through which museums examine their historical content and present a version of their history to the public. While museum professionals ultimately decide their museum's mode of presentation, museum associations, public consulting groups, and historians and scholars also promote interpretive ideas through programs and publications. Interpretation has been changing over the last twenty years because of new notions of museums' role in public education and the demand for representation of all ethnic and lower class histories. Wyck Home, Pennsbury Manor, Harriton House, and Elfreth's Alley exemplify the different modes of interpretation that are practiced in material culture museums today.
- ItemCreating the ideal Republican : Northern Ireland prison writings as propaganda(2002) Crawford, Mary K.In 1976 a political cartoon entitled "Portrait of a Terrorist" appeared in a magazine in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Instead of depicting one of the menacing black-hooded figures typically associated with the Provisional Irish Republican Army, the cartoon showed "a bemused, unthreatening teenager, average in every way." Indeed, when the Provisional Irish Republican Army began its initial period of recruitment, this image was accurate; the typical Republican paramilitary was a teenage male from the Catholic ghettoes, whose lack of clear political belief was outweighed by his eagerness to participate in some political movement. Therefore, it was the role of Republican propaganda to mold this young man into the Republican image. This thesis examines the ways that the Republican movement used propaganda to create an image of the ideal Republican, which served as a template for the organization's members to follow. It analyzes the propaganda value of the prison writings of three high-profile Republican figures: Bobby Sands, Gerry Adams, and Danny Morrison. These men used carefully chosen tactics to develop a picture of what it meant to be a Republican. This image changed to reflect the shifting strategy of the movement, from a focus on an entirely armed strategy, to a combined policy of armed and political strategies, to primarily politics, to peace.
- ItemRepublic and Empire : visions of the nation during the Spanish Civil War(2002) Vidal-Cerra, Ignacio J."Current tensions concerning the understanding of the Spanish nation are very much present in Spanish politics and society today. This has its roots in the civil war of 1936, which lasted until 1939, when a group of military leaders rose against the Spanish Republic that had been established in 1931. Historians of Europe have declared it the "prelude to World War II." Historians of Spain have deemed it "the war of two Spains." In this study I intend to go beyond the "two Spains" interpretation and to explore, from the perspectives of different theories of nationalism, the ways in which Spaniards of both sides of the struggle of the civil war saw, remembered, and imagined their nation"--Introduction.
- ItemPerpetual educational inequality : an historical analysis of the Germantown community in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania(2002) Brown, JordanThe Germantown community in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania was founded as a German settlement in the late seventeenth century and for centuries was a largely "suburban"-- or even rural-- environment inhabited by almost exclusively people of European descent. However, the twentieth century saw such a large influx of black residents that at the end of the twentieth century there were few whites remaining. This paper examines the social and cultural forces that turned a white, suburban enclave into a predominantly black ghetto and focuses on the importance of educational inequalities [black vs. white] as one of the major contributors to the community's present state of near despair.
- ItemMurder trial of a sex psychopath : the construction of homosexuality in mid-twentieth century America(2002) Worthman, Ari; Jefferson, Paul; Saler, Bethel; Graham, Lisa Jane, 1963-This thesis traces both the popular and psychiatric assumptions about homosexuality that guided the murder trial of Seymour Levin, a seventeen-year-old native Philadelphian who in 1949 was accused of raping and murdering twelve-year-old Ellis Simons. This microhistorical approach to studying the history of sexuality provides us with a glimpse of the ways in which medical experts and laypeople during the mid-twentieth century inextricably linked notions and imagery of homosexuality and violence. The study draws heavily upon materials from the Philadelphia City Archives and the Free Library. The City Archives houses over 200 pages of courtroom transcriptions of the 1949 murder trial. The Free Library stores on microfilm the Inquirer and Daily News from 1949, which supplemented the information and details presented in the courtroom transcriptions. The court records, for example, do not include transcriptions of the lawyers' closing arguments. Furthermore, current Pennsylvania law prohibits public access to psychiatric evaluations of defendants. Because this case was highly publicized, segments of the closing arguments and the complete psychiatric evaluation of Seymour were reprinted in the Philadelphia papers. I spent countless hours sifting through these court records and microfilmed newspaper articles that covered the trial.
- ItemDiscourses of Exclusion and Resistance: Revealing a Contemporary Forum for Discussion on Difference(2002) Whittemore, Andrew
- ItemBeyond the Line of Redemption: The Philadelphia Waterfront in Urban Life, 1790-1820(2002) Boyd, Caroline Stratton; Saler, Bethel
- ItemHumble heroes: how the American Friends Service Committee struggled to save Oswald Kernberg and three hundred other Jewish children from Nazi Europe(2002) Gumpert, Laura; Bernstein, Carol
- ItemUnionist Nationalism: Paradox or (Emergent) Paradigm(2002) Bunde, Janet; Saler, Bethel