Browsing by Author "Preston, Anne Elizabeth"
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- ItemA Study of Occupational Exit and Its Outcome for U.S. Ph.D. Recipients in Science and Engineering Professions(2014) Yang, Shuoying; Preston, Anne ElizabethDespite the recent increase of women's employment rate, women continue to be underrepresented in science and engineering. This could be largely attributed to the fact that many women are leaving science after receiving a science education and starting a science job. In this thesis research, the 1993 to 2010 Scientists and Engineers Statistics Data System (SESTAT) has been used to analyze the level of occupational exit of Ph.D. graduates in science and engineering, and have started to work in related jobs. The survival analysis is firstly carried out to measure the length of time until Ph.D. graduates to exit science. The occupational exit is then decomposed to five possible reasons, and the competing-hazard analysis is used study what reasons make males and females to leave science. After that, the difference-in-differences analysis is applied to study how salary and job satisfaction change before and after their exit. Our results reveal that women are 1.7 times more likely than their male counterparts to leave science related occupations mainly because of family reasons. Males are more likely to work out of science because of reasons other than family. The results also show that females leave science because of salary; however, they are earning even less after exit. Males are not leaving science because of salary. The job satisfaction of male and female leavers is lower than those who are staying in science, either before or after they exit.
- ItemAn Examination of Discrimination in the Premier League(2023) Page, Celia; Preston, Anne ElizabethThis paper examines potential discrimination against non-white players through a study of yellow and red cards awarded to players in the English Premier League throughout the 2010- 11 to 2020-21 seasons. In addition, this paper investigates the effect of explicit monitoring technology, the VAR (Video Assistant Referee) in Premier League soccer, to see if referee bias exists or diminishes. I ultimately find that non-white players are less likely to receive yellow cards than white players, reducing their predicted probability of receiving a yellow card by 1.02 percentage points which is statistically significant; this translates to about a 10% reduction. The test for red cards revealed that non-white players receive slightly more red cards than white players, however none of these specifications yielded statistically significant results. The VAR analysis showed that explicit monitoring technology can reduce the probability of referees awarding yellow cards by 1.39 percentage points, which is statistically significant. Further, the lower probability of yellow cards for non-white players disappears in the post VAR period. Finally, position level analyses reveal that all the significant results are driven by issuing of yellow cards to both forwards and defenders.
- ItemAre We Helping the Poor? An inquiry into the Effects of "welfare-to-work" Programs on TANF Recipients(2009) Lipsitz, Mike; Preston, Anne ElizabethThis paper evaluates the effects of “welfare-to-work” programs. Of interest are the stringency of work related activity requirements, whether or not work related activity requirements are on a case by case basis, and whether or not mandatory job search assistance programs exist. The outcomes on which I evaluate the effects of these policies are income, proportion of individuals who are not working, and proportion of individuals who are working full time. The effect of mandatory job search assistance programs is negligible and negative in all cases. I find a dual effect of stringency of work related activity requirements and work related activity requirements on a case by case basis, leading to increased levels of income and full time employment but decreased levels of employment overall. This suggests a cyclical effect whereby TANF recipients are forced into full time labor but soon exit the labor force. I hypothesize that this is due to job mismatch, as TANF recipients do not have time to find a job that is a good match for them.
- ItemBeauty Thesis: How Skin Tone and Beauty Rankings Interact in Labor Market Outcomes(2021) Queen, Isabel; Preston, Anne ElizabethThis paper looks at the effects of beauty and skin tone on income using data from the General Social Survey. Beauty premiums and skin tone penalties exist and have a significant impact on labor market outcomes. More beautiful people make more money, and darker skin-toned people make less money. Black men show the largest beauty premium. This research suggests that the effect of looks on income becomes even greater as skin tone is darker. White respondents show a skin tone penalty for both males and females. Industry and service jobs show significant beauty premiums, and the service industry shows a skin tone penalty. This research suggests that grooming is more significant than looks in determining income in all groups except black men.
- ItemBiases in Competitive Situations: A Case Study of Near-Post Bias Among Professional Goalkeepers(2017) Prescott, Kathy; Preston, Anne ElizabethThis paper studies whether or not goalkeepers in the English Premier League are biased towards over-protecting their near-post and as a result give up more goals than would be optimal at the far-post. The results demonstrate that there is a statistically significant difference between the probabilities of making a save at the near-post compared to the far-post while controlling for characteristics of the shot and characteristics of the goalkeeper. Controlling for all of these characteristics, the probability of scoring on a far-post shot is 27 percentage points higher than scoring on a near-post shot. There is also evidence, however, that the size of the bias falls as the quality of the goalkeeper increases. These results support the hypothesis that goalkeepers are biased towards over-protecting their near-post based on the stigma associated with getting scored on in that manner. This finding is also important for economic forecasters since most economic models are based on the assumption that individuals will behave rationally when making decisions rather than being swayed by biases
- ItemBiases in the Imposition of the Death Penalty : An investigation into discrimination in the sentencing of Capital Crimes in the United States, 1983-2001(2006) Morgan, Michael; Preston, Anne ElizabethThis is an investigation into biases in the capital sentencing process in the United States between the years 1983 to 2001. Its aim is to determine if biases exist due to race, gender, or education level in the sentencing of capital crimes, and if they do, whether they differ by geographic region or change over time. The hypothesis is that these biases do exist, and are strongest in the south but are growing weaker over time. Regression analysis demonstrated that several biases do exist in capital sentencing. Biases exist such that white and male offenders are significantly more likely to receive the death penalty than are non-whites and females. Offenders sentenced in the south and southwest were found to be more likely to be sentenced to death than those sentenced in the west and midwest. Lastly, racial biases were found to be decreasing with the passage of time. Therefore, this study suggests that the sentencing of capital crimes is biased, and these biases differ by region and are decreasing over time.
- ItemComparing the Revenue and Profit Effects of Winning and Having a Star Player for a Major League Baseball Team(2006) Kelman, Jon; Preston, Anne ElizabethThis thesis studies the revenue and profit effects of winning and having a star player for Major League Baseball (MLB) teams over the period of 2000-2004. Regression analysis is used to determine the revenue and expenditure effects of having a star player and winning; the two are then compared to gauge profits. The analysis also attempts to find the value of stars and winning for teams from different sized cities, as well as the marginal revenue product of star players as the number of stars on a team increases. The findings are used to determine the best financial strategies for MLB teams.
- ItemCorporate Sponsorship in Professional Soccer: Does it Pay to Support a Winner?(2019) Berger, Reiss; Preston, Anne ElizabethIn this paper I examine how jersey sponsorship in professional sports translates to the stock market. Companies such as Chevrolet and Yokohama Tyres invest millions of dollars every year to have their name printed in bold across the jerseys of the best professional soccer teams around the world. I investigate whether there are tangible market returns to this investment, as well as whether soccer games are enough of a shock to swing investor sentiment. I use a two-step OLS methodology using 53,000 stock market price observations and 701 game observations from 2007-2018 for 14 elite European soccer teams. I measure stock price changes of the sponsoring company based on game results, importance of the match, pre-game odds, and whether the sponsor company is located in the team’s home country. I find no significant link exists between game characteristics and sponsor stock price. This leads to the question of what tangible returns sponsors are seeing as well as how much sports affect investors’ decision making.
- ItemDecision-Making Bias in the NBA Free Agency: The Case of the Playoffs(2021) Matkaris, Tilemachos; Preston, Anne ElizabethThis paper explores the impact of unexpected playoff performance on free agent contracts for NBA players. It also examines the rationality of NBA executives when making these hiring decisions, in order to determine whether they are weighing recent playoff performance correctly. Both contract data and extensive performance data for NBA players from 2013 to 2019 are used to answer these questions. There is evidence that unexpected playoff performance, specifically in regard to player scoring, rebounding, and win-shares accumulation, significantly impacts a player's future wages, with unexpectedly good performance being rewarded and unexpectedly bad performance being punished. Furthermore, it is shown that NBA general managers in charge of handing out these contracts are neither overvaluing nor undervaluing players' unexpected playoff performances. Thus, we find no evidence that psychological biases might be affecting the ability of NBA executives to correctly evaluate how many of their available resources should be allocated to a specific player.
- ItemDoes It Pay To Incentivize Recycling? An Economic Analysis of Bottle Bill Laws(2010) Kaden, Jake; Preston, Anne ElizabethThis study examines bottle bill laws to determine if providing monetary incentives for recycling affects recycling participation rates. It also analyzes the extent to which a state’s bottle bill law influences people to recycle who would not normally recycle in the absence of a bottle bill law. Additionally, it compares bottle bills to other recycling programs to see which program has the greatest effect on recycling participation rates. The study finds that providing monetary incentives for recycling makes a significant difference in recycling participation rates. This report finds that, for both 1990 and 2007, having a bottle bill greatly impacts the recycling rates within a state. Another monetary incentive program, the pay-as-you-throw program, also resulted in an increased rate of recycling in the year 1990.
- ItemDoes it Pay to Play? Returns to High School Sports Participation for Non-College Attendees(2022) Friedrich, Hannah; Preston, Anne ElizabethThe benefits of youth sports participation are well studied and are understood to be associated with more successful outcomes throughout one's lifespan. Skills acquired during these sports experiences like communication, leadership, and teamwork can be easily translated to skills necessary in the workforce, thus the argument that sports participation may act as an investment in human capital is compelling. I study this association between sports participation and future labor market success among a uniquely understudied group: students who do not pursue a higher education. By targeting the likely more socioeconomically vulnerable group, I am able to determine to what extent sports experiences act as a more important pathway for those who do not go to college. Not only does this group defy a higher likelihood of attending college, but evidence from analysis indicates a positive effect of sports participation on future earnings for the non-college group of about 15%. Compared to the subset of college graduates, who both may have had an increased probability of graduating from college because of athletics and experience a 2% improvement in earnings attributable to high school sports participation, I estimate a 10 to 13% difference between groups in the rewards to high school athletics. This difference emphasizes sports experiences as a more important pathway for the less-educated subset of students. The implications of this analysis support the need for funding allocated to sports experiences – a cost burden frequently cut by school districts with sparce budgets – in that there are immense income-based benefits for the population of students set to enter the labor market earlier than those who go on to pursue college.
- ItemDrinking, Drugs, and Students: Analyzing Characteristics of Institutions of Higher Education and Their Correspondence to Arrests and Disciplinary Actions due to Drug and Alcohol Violations(2007) Millman, Jeffrey; Preston, Anne ElizabethThe purpose of this thesis is to look at various characteristics of institutions of higher learning in conjunction with each institution’s number of arrests and internal disciplinary actions for drug and liquor law violations. The goal is to determine correlations between these characteristics and the arrests and internal disciplinary actions. While a lot of studies have looked at data collected from student surveys, this one collects data that is self-reported by each institution. It is found that there are some school characteristics, especially percent of applicants admitted, that correspond to a higher number of arrests and internal disciplinary actions.
- ItemEffects of Payday Loan Regulation on Mainstream Credit Use(2014) Bindert, Victoria; Preston, Anne ElizabethThe payday loan industry is a highly debated provider of alternative financial services (AFS). The varied regulations implemented across states which include finance charge regulation, loan term regulation, loan amount regulation, and bans attempt to shift consumers away from this industry to mainstream credit options that increase consumer welfare in the long-run. Using the Current Population Survey Unbanked/Underbanked Supplement from 2009 and 2011, I analyze the effectiveness of each type of legislation that exists across states in these years. Looking at payday loan use, alternative financial service use to cash checks, and alternative financial service use to take out a money order within the year preceding the survey, I find that finance charge regulations are most effective in shifting consumers away from payday loans and maximum loan term and fee regulations are most effective in shifting consumers away from AFS for money orders. Looking at demand side effects, I find that finance charge regulations are effective because they reduce the probability that a consumer finds payday loans more comfortable, more convenient, or easier to get than bank loans.
- ItemFan and Player Alignment: An Analysis of the Effect of Local Demographics on Major League Baseball Attendance(2017) Vollaro, Thomas; Preston, Anne ElizabethLiterature on fan attendance in sports has shown evidence of discrimination against minority players that has gradually dissipated over the last several decades. In the same timeframe, the population of different minorities in the United States have grown and now amass a significant portion of the total population. While many papers have looked at the rise in both minority populations in the U.S. and minority players in sports, only a small amount of research has been done to look at the potential effects of the interaction between the two. This paper explores the interaction between the racial-ethnic characteristics of the players of a Major League Baseball (MLB) team and its surrounding local population. The primary focus of the research is to determine to what extent alignment between fan and player demographics exists and how any alignment affects game attendance. Results indicate that demographic alignment is a significant determinant of attendance and that the more demographically aligned a team is with its local population, the higher their game attendance will be. Additionally, results find that while fans seemingly do not discriminate against their own players, there is potential for discrimination against players of the visiting team and this discrimination may be more severe in areas with a larger white population, though the results are not significant at conventional levels. This work contributes a new determinant of fan attendance to the literature while also providing a look at the current state of fan discrimination in the MLB.
- ItemGay and Professional: Earnings Differentials of Doctors and Lawyers based on Sexual Orientation(2008) Sur, Alexandra L.; Preston, Anne ElizabethThis study aims to investigate earnings differentials by sexual orientation in the professional labor markets, especially those of doctors, dentists, and lawyers using the 2000 U.S. Census 5% Public Use Micro-data. The main focus is to observe whether homosexual doctors/dentists and lawyers earn less than their heterosexual counterparts, holding other factors that might influence one’s yearly salary constant. Additionally, this study attempts to examine the effect of antidiscrimination policies on gay and lesbian doctors and lawyers. For men, marital status, rather than sexual orientation, appears to be responsible for a large portion of earnings differentials between homosexual and heterosexual doctors/lawyers. There is no statistically significant difference between the earnings differentials of gay and heterosexual unmarried men, and both earn less than their married counterparts. For men, neither was a significant difference found between states that had policies banning sexual orientation employment discrimination and those that did not.. For women, the result is more interesting. Lesbian doctors are estimated to earn 9 percent less than both married and unmarried heterosexual female doctors. Lesbian lawyers, although the differential is insignificant across the country, are estimated to earn 9.8 percent less than their heterosexual counterparts in absence of antidiscrimination policies. Unlike their male counterparts, both lesbian doctors and lawyers appear to benefit from antidiscrimination policies.
- ItemGenerational Differences in Unemployment Experiences and the Formation of Beliefs Regarding Work(2017) Manetta, Sarina; Preston, Anne ElizabethThis study investigates how the 4 generational cohorts in the US differ in their expectations regarding various job market and personal employment opinions. To conduct this inquiry, actual unemployment rate data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics is used to control for current and past unemployment climate experiences. Survey data from the Michigan Survey of Consumers provides expectations responses regarding unemployment, job security, retirement benefits, and personal income. Compared to the literature that paints Millennials in a negative light as those who jump from job to job and flee at the first indication of down times in the company or the market, the results show that Millennials are most optimistic about future unemployment and keeping their jobs. This optimism among Millennials can be interpreted as confidence in the ability to find a new job with ease. Millennials are also not confident in their probability of receiving an income increase, however Millennial males are more confident in this area compared to their female counterparts. The results also indicate mixed views towards retirement prospects for the youngest generations. Future research on the Millennial generation is important to understanding this group that will soon dominate the labor market.
- ItemHousing Turnover and Gentrification in New York City: How Family, Neighborhood, and Building Characteristics Affect Change in a Community(2009) Rodriguez, Jacqueline; Preston, Anne ElizabethThe purpose of this study is to determine which family, building and neighborhood characteristics affect housing turnover for different populations in New York City between 2002 and 2005. The information for this research was collected from the 2000 United States Census and the New York City Housing and Vacancy Survey. The main focus is to observe the differences in the probability of turnover for the residents of the city in general and the probability of turnover for the Latino community. Housing turnover is often a sign that gentrification or urban renewal is taking place in an area. The results reveal that Latinos are not more likely to be displaced than the entire sample, despite the multitude of anecdotal evidence that states the contrary. One important finding is that change, either positive or negative, in the neighborhood where a housing unit is located increases the probability of turnover for all groups. Housing turnover is also less likely for more stable households. Although the exact effects of urban renewal are difficult to determine, understanding how neighborhoods change is beneficial for all members of a community.
- ItemHow did the Middle Income Student Assistance Act of 1978 Impact Female College Attendance?(2010) Marcus, Sara Elizabeth; Preston, Anne ElizabethThis thesis evaluates the effect of the Middle Income Students Assistance Act (MISAA), passed by the federal government in 1978, on college enrollment and specifically the probability of women attending college. I hypothesize that the act increased college attendance for middle-income students, and that the increase was greater for women than for men, because previously families for societal and financial reasons may have demonstrated a greater preference to educate males. The analysis uses CPS data for 18-19 year olds from 1968-90, and includes control variables relating to Human Capital Theory, the Marriage Model and individual background characteristics. The model examines the effect of MISAA by sex, income quintile and family composition. The results of the regression estimate a 10.2 and 12.2 percentage point increase in the probability of attending college during the years that MISAA is in effect for women in the first and second quintile of family income, respectively. No significant result was obtained for men in any income quintile. This finding adds another piece to the multifaceted puzzle of the increase in women’s college enrollment that has occurred over the last 40 years.
- Item“I Went to a Fight and a Hockey Game Broke Out.” A 2022 analysis of the effects of fighting on attendance in the NHL.(2023) O'Malley, William Michael; Preston, Anne ElizabethFan preferences for violence in the National Hockey League were analyzed from the period of 2005 to 2020. Attendance was found to be sensitive to a team’s win percentage, goals conceded, fan cost index, and the presence of an outdoor game. Using the proxy for violence as the sum of the last 5 game’s fights and interacting fights with the season, we were able to estimate that fighting had a negative relationship with attendance at the beginning of the period, which became more and more positive as time went on, eventually transforming into a positive relationship by the end of the period. However, this result did not prove to be robust. Therefore, we cannot conclude any significant results for a relationship between fighting and attendance during this time.
- ItemInvestigating the Effect of No-Loan Policies on Higher-Education Enrollment Decisions for Low-Income Students(2016) Adams, Gaines; Preston, Anne ElizabethThis thesis expands upon the work of Waddell and Singell by investigating the effects of no-loan policies on the enrollment of low-income students at elite, private institutions. We utilize a hand-constructed timeline of no-loan policy implementation at 33 elite institutions from 2000 to 2012 in order to run multiple institution and year level fixed effects regressions. Our findings indicate that no-loan policies increase the enrollment of low-income students by 14.4% at liberal arts schools within our elite sample but that there is no significant impact of their implementation at elite, private universities. With respect to our entire 70-institution sample, we find a significant, positive influx of low-income students in response to an increase in the percentage of those schools offering a no-loan policy. We believe these findings suggest that a considerable number of low-income students forego an elite education due to a reluctance to take on the loans necessary to do so.