Browsing by Author "Le, Benjamin"
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- ItemA Date with Mother Nature: The Environmental Investment Model(2010) Rickert, Jeff; Le, BenjaminThe present study sought to identify determining factors that were associated with pro-environmental behaviors. In two studies, we adapted two relevant theoretical templates (the Investment Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior) into a unified model to test our hypotheses investigating environmental relationships. In Study 1, using a community sample, we examined our theoretical framework using a cross-sectional design and self-report measures to investigate the relationships between environmental attitudes and beliefs towards energy conservation, recycling, and use of alternative transportation. We hypothesized that satisfaction level, quality of alternatives, investment size, and subjective norms regarding the natural environment would be associated with commitment to the natural environment and these ecological behaviors. Additionally, we predicted that commitment would be significantly associated with willingness to sacrifice for the environment and these same ecological behaviors. The purpose of Study 2 was to assess the causal mechanisms and directionality of the association between level of commitment and willingness to sacrifice using priming techniques. Our data support the belief that greater personal commitment predicts greater pro-environmental behavior (i.e., willingness to sacrifice for the environment). Further, these data clarify behavioral ambiguities within the human-environment relationship by investigating specific ecological domains.
- ItemA Master Narrative Approach to Examining Romantic Relationship Deviations(2015) Colombo, Lucas F. J.; Le, Benjamin; Lilgendahl, JenniferThe present research aimed to investigate the ways in which people in romantic relationships interpret how their relationships differ from what is considered normal. A sample of 200 individuals in relationships completed a survey that asked them to describe their relationship deviation in narrative form and to give an example of when this deviation was manifested. They were also asked to describe an experience in which they discussed their relationship deviation with another person. These narratives were coded for a variety of themes. As hypothesized, several personality characteristics, namely Extraversion and a growth-oriented implicit theory of relationships, were correlated with several narrative themes, specifically positive growth, disclosure, resolution, positive affect, and approval. These narrative themes were also correlated with relationship quality. The narrative theme of positive growth was also found to mediate the relationship between a growth-oriented implicit theory of relationships and relationship quality. Future research can investigate the effect that the severity or centrality of a relationship deviation to an individual’s relationship has on relationship quality, and can also expand upon the efficacy of using narratives to study master narrative deviations.
- ItemA Prototype Analysis of Missing in a Geographically Separated Relationship: Validation, Correlates, and Implications(2005) Feinberg, Emily; Le, BenjaminThe current research used a prototype analysis to study the experience of missing a partner in a geographically separated relationship. In Study 1, the prototype of missing was validated using cognitive tasks and relationship vignettes. As hypothesized, results showed more recall for central features and more false recognition for central features. Relationships including central features were also rated as experiencing more “missing” than relationship including non-central features. In Study 2, the experience of missing was looked at in a long distance relationship sample. Using an online survey, a missing scale created using its prototype, was measured in addition to commitment, loneliness, and other various relationship and personality dimensions. As hypothesized, results found a moderate correlation between missing and commitment and a small, but significant correlation between missing and loneliness. These findings validated the prototypical structure of missing and also found it to be separate from the experience of loneliness. The function of missing as a pro-relationship motivation was also discussed. Future research on the experience of missing in relation to individual and relationship differences is suggested, in addition to a focus on the nature of the separation and relationship involved.
- ItemA Prototype Analysis of Missing in Geographically Separated Romantic Relationships: Validation and Correlates of the Experience of Missing(2005) Johnson, Katherine; Le, BenjaminThere is a growing literature examining the functioning of geographically separated couples and missing is a common experience in long distance relationships. The purpose of Study 1 was to validate the prototype of missing established by Le et al. (2004) through the use of two cognitive memory tasks and a hypothetical relationship task using vignettes. As hypothesized, the sample (N = 92) falsely recalled and falsely recognized central terms of missing more than non-central terms. Vignettes describing relationships with central terms were rated as missing more than relationships described with non-central terms. The purpose of Study 2 was to investigate the experience of missing through the use of an internet study in couples currently separated from their romantic partner (N = 435). The measure of missing demonstrated discriminate validity from the UCLA Loneliness Scale-supporting the hypothesis that missing overlaps but is yet distinct from loneliness. Individuals who missed their partners more were more committed, more securely or anxiously attached and more dependent than those individuals who missed their partners less. Missing serves as a relationship maintenance mechanism to promote behaviors that preserve the relationship in the face of geographic separation.
- ItemA Prototype Analysis of the Concept of Missing(2003) Adams, Sam; Le, Benjamin; Sternberg, WendyMissing a romantic partner is a significant aspect in many peoples' lives; however, there has not been any past research about this experience. The current study is an attempt to define and analyze this concept by using prototype analysis. In Study 1, 77 college students listed features of missing a romantic partner. In Study 2, rankings for centrality and valence of these features were collected from 71 college students. Through the analysis significant differences were discovered between how each gender defines missing. Analysis also revealed a number of relationships, and self-esteem. The study found that differences in the aforementioned sub-tests were correlated with individuals' rating of centrality and valence for the various features. This suggests that understanding how one's partner defines missing may be crucial to relationship stability and satisfaction.
- ItemAbstraction Makes the Heart Grow Fonder: The Effects of Social Power and Construal on Relationship Investments, Alternatives, and Willingness to Sacrifice(2012) Field, James L.; Le, BenjaminThe present studies sought to explore the role of both power and construal (Smith & Trope, 2006) on specific romantic relationship predictors. Two studies, one external and one internal, used adaptations of Rusbult's (1980) investment model to explore the effects of power and construal on present and planned investments (Goodfriend & Agnew, 2008), global and specific alternatives (Simpson, 1987), and motives of sacrifice (Impett et al., 2005). Study 1 used a large and diverse sample for a correlational study, while Study 2 used a experimental design, and primed participants for high and low levels of construal. The studies found that, in general, low levels of power were associated with greater investments of all types, as well as greater willingness to sacrifice, while high power was associated greater perceived alternatives. Low construal was associated with greater perceived alternatives, while high construal was associated with greater overall investments and greater willingness to sacrifice. Overall, high construal appeared to facilitate greater positive relationship maintaining behavior. Further implications for the roles of construal and power in romantic relationships are discussed.
- ItemAnalyzing Gender Differences in Financial Investment Behavior from a Psychological Androgyny Perspective(2022) Kaplan, Michelle; Le, BenjaminWhen analyzing male and female investment behavior, it is clear that historically entrenched, negative gender roles and stereotypes challenge women's financial future. Since women live longer and have lower incomes, the productivity of their investment portfolios is even more crucial than that of men. Nevertheless, female investing tendencies, imposed by gender stereotypes, produce lower results in the current investment format. In order to improve investing results for women, they need to establish a strong investment strategy and take greater agency. A potential point of intervention on gender differences and investment behavior is psychological androgyny. Psychological androgyny is adaptive regarding investment behavior because if one has a mix of high levels of masculine and feminine traits, they benefit by balancing the investment advantages of each gender. By overcoming strict gender lines, individuals can exist on a two-dimensional scale of masculinity and femininity and benefit from favorable investment tendencies typically associated with each gender.
- ItemApplying the Investment Model to Organizational Behavior: An Investigation of Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior(2009) Gordon, Amy; Le, BenjaminThe current study investigated commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) using the Rusbult’s (1980) Investment Model. It was hypothesized that the commitment would predict OCB and workplace behaviors and mediate the effects of satisfaction, investments, and alternatives on OCB. Participants completed online surveys that also included measures of conscientiousness and Meyer and Allen’s (1991) Three-Component Model of commitment. The results showed that satisfaction, alternatives, and investments predicted commitment, and commitment predicted OCB. Commitment did not mediate the association between Investment Model variables and OCB. A regression revealed that the Investment Model better predicted OCB than the Three-Component Model. Researchers should continue to implement the Investment Model to study organizational commitment and its relationship to workplace behaviors.
- ItemApplying the Investment Model to Organizational Commitment and Workplace Behaviors(2009) King, Allison J.; Le, BenjaminThis study examined the relationship between commitment in the workplace and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB), behaviors that employees perform that go above and beyond the required duties of the job. Questionnaire data was gathered through an online survey of 267 employees in a variety of professions, with a focus on educators and student workers. Regression analyses supported the Investment Model, in that satisfaction with the job, investments in the organization, and alternatives to the job predicted organizational commitment, which in turn predicted OCB. While alternatives did not individually predict OCB, commitment was found to mediate the relationship between satisfaction and OCB and partially mediate the relationship between investments and OCB. However, the individual components of the Investment Model failed to uniformly predict OCB or workplace outcomes, suggesting the need to evaluate the effectiveness of the Investment Model in the workplace. Discussion focuses on the importance of exploring a wider range of professions and dimensions of citizenship behaviors.
- Item“Brands are People, Too!” The Role of Brand Identity, Narrative and Personality in Modern Marketing(2013) Sussan, Leo; Le, BenjaminThough marketing researchers have long postulated the importance of a brand’s personality to its overall value, nobody has attempted to define the process behind how brand personality is established. This paper postulates the supreme importance of brand narratives, both its internal (its history and collective makeup) and external (the perceptions which consumers come to have, predicated on the brand’s demonstrative efforts to persuade), in the building of a positive and beneficial brand narrative. The present work details a multitude of variables which go into constructing a narrative that successfully connotes the desired personality, and concludes by applying the framework to the BlackBerry brand, a well-known but beleaguered brand facing a multitude of problems.
- ItemConservation Motivation: Using Hypocrisy and Self-Efficacy to Induce Environment Behavioral Change(2012) Costes, Lydie; Le, BenjaminThe present study seeks to address the disparity between pro-environmental attitudes and actual engagement in pro-environmental behaviors by proposing a route for inducing behavioral change. Festinger's (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance and Bandura's (1977) theory of selfefficacy are combined to suggest a stronger means for motivating behavior. One hundred eleven undergraduate students at Haverford and Bryn Mawr Colleges participated in one of six experimental conditions. Participants were primed for high or low self-efficacy beliefs and asked to either advocate for conservation, reflect upon past failures to conserve, or both advocate and reflect. Surveys assessed participants' pro-conservation and pro-environmental attitudes and selfefficacy beliefs, and various opportunities were offered to measure possible behavioral change. Past research has shown that public advocacy and private confession for a pro-social behavior can motivate behavioral change. The researchers proposed that high self-efficacy beliefs could augment pro-environmental behavior as a mechanism for dealing with hypocrisy, while low selfefficacy beliefs could inhibit pro-environmental behavior and increase negative attitudes towards conservation. None of the hypotheses was supported, but many directions for future research are offered.
- ItemConstrual Level Theory and Power Dynamics in Close Relationships(2012) Williams, Jonathan H.; Le, BenjaminThe present studies explored the intersection of Construal Level Theory (CLT) and power dynamics in close relationships, examining their effects on investments, perception of alternatives, and willingness to sacrifice. CLT outlines the processes by which individuals consider distal events abstractly (high construal) or concretely (low construal). We define power in terms of inequalities in respective partners' dependence levels in relationships, where the more powerful partner is the one who is less dependent on the relationship. We also delved into how these two constructs affect specific types of investments (present, planned, tangible, and intangible), types of alternatives (global and specific), and motives for sacrifice (approach and avoid). Two studies were conducted: a correlational study (Study 1) and an experiment where we manipulated power and construal (Study 2), with hypotheses partially supported in Study 1. Low power and high construal were associated with more investments, fewer global alternatives, and demonstrating a greater willingness to sacrifice. The findings for construal appear to be particularly novel, as this area of the literature is somewhat sparse. Implications of our results and directions for further research are discussed.
- ItemConsumer Use of Nutrition Labels: An Examination of Label Effectiveness & Dual-Process Theories(2022) Howard, Lauren; Le, BenjaminRecently, the prevalence of obesity and diet-related diseases have increased, indicating that many people are consuming energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets– over consuming sodium and fats and under consuming potassium, iron, and calcium. Now more than ever, people are invested in improving their health and are much more attune to nutrition information, content, and quality. With new products, nutritious alternatives, and food label attributes, it is crucial that consumers are aware of the nutrition information for all foods they purchase. While nutrition labels aim to be effective, consumer-friendly tools, not everyone understands the information included and its value to personal health. There is a significant gap between those who understand nutrition information and those who do not. Bridging this gap requires increasing all consumers' health knowledge, motivation, and most importantly, perceived relevance. Because front-of-pack labels aim to quickly attract consumer attention and provide relevant information without too much clutter, this labeling system has generated increased interest regarding consumer behavior. There is a substantial amount of literature examining what labels are the most effective in attracting and holding consumer attention, as well as the dynamic interactions between consumer characteristics, stimuli, and situational factors. To answer some of these questions, it is necessary to explore consumers' processing strategies, specifically how motivation for processing is dependent on perceived personal relevance between the consumer and the message or information presented.
- ItemConversations on Conservation: Exploring the Effect of Self-Efficacy and Hypocrisy on Environmentalism(2012) Hofheimer, Julia; Le, BenjaminThe present study sought to determine if two constructs known to influence both attitude and behavior change--perceived self-efficacy and hypocrisy-induced cognitive dissonance--might interact to increase pro-environmental conservation behaviors. One hundred and twenty participants were recruited to participate in our 2 x 3 factorial experiment consisting of two levels of self-efficacy condition (high, low) and three levels of cognitive dissonance condition (advocacy, reflection, both/hypocrisy). The experimenters developed a conservation-specific self-efficacy prime and scale/manipulation check, along with a cognitive dissonance manipulation and a conservation-specific attitude scale. Both scales demonstrated high reliability; however, neither prime produced the hypothesized main effects on the respective dependent variables of interest. Participants' self-efficacy scores were then analyzed as quasi-experimental variables, which yielded significant main effects of the quasi- experimental self-efficacy group on both conservation attitudes and more general environmental attitudes (as measured by the NEP) that are consistent with past literature. Unfortunately, no actual increase in pro-conservation behaviors was found due either to ineffective manipulation, floor effects with the behavioral measures, or both. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed.
- ItemDeath, Isolation, and Culture: Testing the Validities of Terror Management Theory and Coalitional Psychology(2006) Ing, Jennifer; Le, Benjamin; Sternberg, WendyTwo empirical studies attempted 1) to compare the validities of terror management theory and coalitional psychology, 2) to extend past research on cultural influences on cognition, and 3) to examine the effects of mortality and social isolation salience on cognition. Experiment 1 examined the effects of cultural (collectivism or individualism) priming and salience (mortality, social isolation, or neutral) priming on performance on a field-dependence task and a causal attribution task. The results revealed no significant effects for the field-dependence task but a significant cultural priming effect on the attribution task. Experiment 2 examined the effects of cultural priming and salience priming on mortality, social isolation, or fear-thought accessibility as measured through a word completion task. The only significant effect that emerged was one of salience priming in which the neutral salience condition showed a greater accessibility for social isolation words. The implications of these results for both past and future research are discussed.
- ItemDefining Teamwork: An Analysis of Group Dynamics in Sports(2013) Hoffman, Sarah; Le, BenjaminThis paper explores sports psychology and more specifically the topic of teamwork. It investigates and reviews the current relevant literature in both social and sports psychology disciplines. Theoretical models of group dynamics, cohesion, and coaching are included, forming the framework from which to create a new operational definition for teamwork, something previously missing from this field of research. Teamwork is defined as all members of a sports team having a shared and deeply imbedded understanding of: team identity, team philosophy, individual roles, and performance outcome goals. Additionally, this paper applies the new definition to a coaching intervention model – a stepwise program that explains how coaches can effectively build teamwork that leads to positive performance outcomes. This definition and model provide the basis from which research in this field of study should continue. A specific way to measure teamwork as well as adaptations for specificities like level and type of sport should also be considered in future work. This paper is intended to serve as an innovative application of sports and social psychology that not only expands the field of literature, but also serves as an accessible and useful tool from which athletes and coaches can benefit.
- ItemDo we believe people can change? The impact of growth mindset on beliefs in rehabilitation for the Earth and incarcerated individuals(2020) Wakai, Casey; Le, BenjaminThis series of studies examines the concept of growth mindset in two separate but equally as important contexts: climate change and incarceration. Study 1 investigates the relationship between growth mindset and hopefulness about climate change, and Study 2 investigates the relationship between growth mindset and beliefs in rehabilitation for incarcerated people. Both studies were conducted via survey. The data was collected via Prolific, and the samples were mostly caucasian, but evenly split between male and female genders (N = 209 for Study 1, N =208 for Study 2). The only significant finding was the mediating effect of perceived personal warmth on beliefs in rehabilitation for one of the three vignettes in the measure for beliefs in rehabilitation for incarcerated people. More research should be done examining the role of optimism, which was a control variable in all analyses, and showed to be a strong predictor in many of them.
- ItemEthnic Minority Voting and the non-White Candidacy of Obama(2009) Kaplan, Alex; Le, BenjaminThe question of who votes and why is central to an understanding of democracy. It is a simple question that, through scholarly examination, unfolds into a vast and multifarious web of hazy concepts and variables difficult to define and operationalize. The question becomes increasingly complex when expanded to consider ethnic minority voting in the context of United States history and modern American politics; in this extension of scope we must attempt an understanding of how a frustratingly generalized conception of ethnic minority psychology interacts with the socio-political dynamics of a country that remains characterized by racial divide. Regardless of difficulty, the task of exploring the reasoning and psychology behind ethnic minority voting is of utmost significance for contemporary American politics. In 1988, when the United States Census began differentiating between Asians and other non-Whites, the ethnic minorities considered in this paper (Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians) made up only 12% of the American electorate. Twenty years later, in 2008, the same groups made up 22% of the nation's voters (Lopez & Taylor, 2009). While registered White voters are still by far the largest electorate group (of 146 million registered voters overall in 2008, Whites constituted 122 million), the ever-rising Black (25 million total, 17 million registered), Hispanic (20 million total, 12 million registered), and Asian (7 million total, 4 million registered) voter populations represent increasingly formidable political clout, especially when considering that many recent presidential elections have been decided by a relatively close margin.
- ItemExplanations on why ‘WEIRD’ Brains are Hard to Study: Exploring the Barriers in Collecting and Reporting Racial Demographics in the Field of Cognitive Neuroscience(2023) Handler, Lauren T.; Le, BenjaminCurrent practices indicate that collecting and reporting racial demographics is not the norm within the field of cognitive neuroscience (Goldfarb & Brown, 2022). The current study used linear regression and multiple linear regression analyses to determine attitude, demographic, and policy-based predictors for valuing racially diverse samples. The findings were based on survey answers from a convenience sample of neuroscientists from cognitive neuroscience listservs and individuals from the top 20 neuroscience programs in the United States (n = 88). Racially diverse samples were rated significantly higher than racially homogenous samples. Additionally, the number of years since graduation from the researcher’s highest earned degree was negatively correlated with valuing racially diverse samples. The present findings suggest the field should have increased support and incentives for researchers to pursue utilizing more representative samples and radically reexamine how best to influence progressive change, particularly among those in the highest positions of power.
- ItemExploring Trait-level Variance of Dispositional Need for Approval from Social Networks(2008) Abrams, Allyson; Le, BenjaminThe present research examines need for approval from social networks in regards to an individual's relationship as a dispositional trait, varying at individual levels. In order to explore trait-level need for approval, associations between need for approval and other dispositional-level traits were examined, including self-esteem, attachment dimensions, personality traits, including extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness, collectivistic and individualistic orientations, and the dimensions of autonomy and sociotropy. Measurement of need for approval involved an original scale construction. Two-hundred eighty participants completed a web-based questionnaire. Significant associations were identified between dispositional-need for approval and individualism, collectivism, attachment avoidance, sociotropy, extraversion (including its facet of warmth), and agreeableness. These results suggest that need for approval from social networks is distinct, but related to individual difference dimensions.