Browsing by Author "Glassman, Hank"
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- ItemA Look into Japan’s Lost Generation and Contesting Literary Standards: An Annotated Translation of Wataya Risa’s Install(2016) Davis-Reed, Ashley; Glassman, HankThis thesis will discuss the significance of Wataya Risa’s novel Install (インストール) and conclude with a translation the beginning of the text. The story follows Asako, a seventeen year old girl sick of high school life and studying for entrance exams. After deciding to drop out, she befriends Kuzuyoshi, a neighboring elementary school boy, and together they plan to use her old computer to make easy money through adult websites. The story follows Asako’s growth as she is introduced to the adult world and learns how to install a new life for herself. In 2001, Install won Wataya the 38th Bungei Prize, a literary prize awarded to upcoming writers, at the age of seventeen. This made her the youngest recipient of the award at that time and, therefore, served as her impressive debut to the literary world. By 2003, Wataya went on to win the Akutagawa Prize, the highest honor for Japanese literature, for her following novel I Want to Kick You in the Back (蹴りたい背中). This stirred up much controversy in Japan since Wataya and her fellow award winner were both very young and female authors. As a result, current Western scholarly work tends to focus on either I Want to Kick You in the Back or her fellow prize winner, Kanehara Hitomi, whose idol like appearance and unconventional life choices have provoked much more media attention that Wataya. However, my goal is to show that Install should not be overlooked. It is significant in that it represents both post-bubble youth dissidence and the blending of “pure” literature and popular fiction in Japan and is therefore a valuable piece for future research in those areas.
- ItemA Questionable Affair: Shanghai’s International Settlements in Global Context(2011) Wolensky, Elizabeth; Glassman, Hank; Jiang, YonglinShanghai’s International Settlements are commonly seen as a integral part of both China’s and the West’s combined history, a unique point of contact that has most famously been viewed as one of the main stages on which the drama of Western imperialism in China played out. And in terms of the Settlements’ establishment, their history can sometimes seem as though the Settlements were established completely in 1842, thus artificially creating the International Settlements as they would be known to the world by the turn of the century. By looking at the Shanghai Municipal Police Files, as well as the contemporary pieces by A.M. Kotenev and Zeng Youhao, a picture materializes in which the Settlements are really a questionable mixture of precedent and circumstance rather than the clear-cut result of treaty stipulation. By revising the understanding of the problematic foundations of the Settlements, the picture of the contemporary international order in which Shanghai played a major role is also shown to be less concrete than it is sometimes believe to be.
- ItemAmbivalent Concepts in the Representation of Mt.Fuji(2023) Li, Janice; Glassman, HankThe rationale of this paper stems from the recurring motif of Mount Fuji in famous Japanese films and literary works, such as Tokyo Story, directed by Yasujiro Ozu, Snow Country, written by Yasunari Kawabata; and animations, such as Case Closed, whether a flash of scenes of Mt Fuji in one shot or briefly mentioned. The recurrence raises the question: in what ways Mount Fuji and its iconographic image are essential and prevalent in Japan? This paper aims to review the vital representations of Mount Fuji through a selection of wood-block prints by Japanese artist Utagawa Hiroshige. His art pieces show the fundamental polarity as a religious symbol in ancient Japan is related to the “power of fire (volcanoes) and water (fertility and purification)”. From an art historian's perspective, this paper argues that the body of works reveals the dual qualities of Mount Fuji: the mountain carries auspicious, forward-looking, positive national connotations as a stable and permanent natural landscape; in contrast, in the Japanese aesthetics pathos of things (物の哀れ), it implies a decay, change, and passage of time, associated with impermanence. The body of works also addresses the relationship between human beings and nature through Japanese art. Within this comprehensive scope, this paper discusses how Mount Fuji gained considerable importance in Japanese culture and why the mountain became an accepted element of speculative landscape paintings. Moreover, by digging into the mythological aspect, this paper discusses the religious path and related pilgrimage of Mount Fuji. Through the trajectory of mountain worship, people’s regard for things, and embodiment of the literary works, the paper draws comparisons between Japan and China and concludes with the human relationship with nature.
- ItemAn Exercise in Selective Memory: The Dissenting Judgment of Justice Radhabinod Pal in Postwar Japan(2007) Ezzell, Christine; Glassman, Hank; Lin, Pauline
- ItemBodhidharma Came from the East: Evaluating the Legacy of D.T. Suzuki(2010) Dooley, Matt; Glassman, Hank; McGuire, Anne Marie"Prophecy is rash, but it may well be that the publication of. D.T. Suzuki's first Essays in Zen Buddhism in 1927 will seem in future generations as great an intellectual event as William of Moerbeke's translations of Aristotle in the thirteenth century or Masiglio Ficino's of Plato in the fifteenth. But in Suzuki's case the shell of the Occident has been broken through. More than we dream, we are now governed by the new canon of the globe." So wrote the prominent historian Lynn White, Jr. in 1956, as the West began its brief but intense infatuation with the work of Daisetsu Teitaro Suzuki. Carl Jung famously wrote the foreword to Suzuki's Introduction to Zen Buddhism. Students and professors filled up lecture halls and listened intently to every word. Philip Kapleau has acknowledged, "it is mainly the writings of Dr. Suzuki that have shaped the West's intellectual understanding of Zen." It is impossible to begin studying Western attitudes towards Zen without coming across Suzuki's immense influence on the field. Suzuki's insistence that Zen was an experience incomprehensible to the intellect was critical to his success. Suzuki insisted that Zen could only be understood on its own terms. Here, Suzuki said, was an authentic religious tradition that was unconcerned with intellectualization. It was fiercely suspicious of any intellectual doctrine, placing complete faith in the individual's ability to work out his or her own salvation. Here, Suzuki said, was a religion that provided meaning without insisting upon belief. Suzuki's charisma and the simplicity of his message--that Zen is a religion aimed at grasping "the central fact of life as it is lived"--resonated deeply in Western circles. In recent years, scholars have critiqued Suzuki's vision of Zen as a timeless experience of reality. These scholars rightly point out that Suzuki undertook virtually no historical, political, or cultural analysis of Zen, thus creating an idealized version of Zen that glosses over the flaws and contradictions of the tradition. The trend in Zen scholarship today is to take a stance diametrically opposed to Suzuki. Engaging in the same intellectualization that Suzuki abhorred, scholars now critically analyze Zen, and often attempt to reduce Zen's claims to nothing more than a set of historical, political, and cultural factors. For these scholars, Suzuki was nothing more than a Zen apologist whose work should be discounted as a biased rendering of Zen doctrine inconsistent with the historical record of Zen as a social institution steeped in a specific time and place. In this thesis I argue that a middle path should be charted between these opposing stances. There is no reason why using one approach should mandate the exclusion of the other. Rather, both perspectives should be incorporated into a fuller, more inclusive approach to studying Zen. Suzuki's understanding of Zen, while flawed, should not be dismissed outright. The value of Suzuki's writings is that he managed to cogently interpret Zen's claims of an enlightened experience beyond the realm of intellectualization. While not advocating for the supremacy of Zen as Suzuki did, I maintain that his writings provide valuable insights into the tradition. By acknowledging the value of both perspectives, scholars will be able to undertake a more expansive and nuanced approach to studying Zen.
- ItemChinese Legal Development: The Influence of Power Struggles on the Adoption of Western Legal Concepts(2015) Herrera-Flores, Alan; Jiang, Yonglin; Glassman, HankHistorically, Chinese legal governance has been through criminal codes that specify punishments for actions taken against the state or society. Following the First Opium War (1839-1842), power struggles between China and Western Powers have resulted in the adoption of Western legal concepts. The main mechanism behind this process is the negotiations of perceived positions of power that occur through power struggle dynamics. When an involved government is acutely displaced from its perceived position of power, the displaced power much accommodate a new order, typically by adopting no only the predominant group’s legal concepts but also its legal institutions. From 1842 to 1912, the Qing experienced this phenomenon, resulting from the war between China and the eight Western Powers. Eventually, the Qing’s displacement of power let to the adoption of foreign legal institutions in order to find a place within the new power structure. In particular, the power struggles primarily with Britain, Japan, and the United States have shaped and influenced China’s adoption of international law, changes to criminal law, civil and company law, and constitutional law (1908-1911). These power struggles have taken place on the field through Military displays of power, and on the court through legal confrontations between Chinese officials and representative of Foreign Powers. Accordingly, China’s legal landscape has been deeply influenced through these interactions with Western Powers and their legal concepts.
- ItemConfucianism in South Korea: Modern Aspects of an Ancient Tradition(2013) Kushner, Juliana I.; Glassman, HankThis thesis examines to what extent Confucianism is still apparent in modern Korea by comparing the 12th century work Family Rituals with the modern Korean drama A Gentleman’s Dignity. Korea has been modernizing rapidly in the past several decades and many scholars are of the opinion that traditional Confucianism and Western modernization are not compatible. Modern life surely presents many Koreans with apparent conflicts between traditional values and modern ones (especially as represented in free-‐market capitalism with its emphasis on the individual). In this thesis, however, it is argued that, although other factors may at times outweigh the need to act in an ethical fashion, Confucianism is still a major factor shaping modern life in Korea. Aspects of Geert Hofstede’s theories concerning power distance, individualism, and masculinity are used to support the arguments made. The human tendency to be swayed by money and romantic love is discussed in detail as it pertains to scenes from A Gentleman’s Dignity.
- ItemErroneous Translations: A Love Letter to Those Whose Voice Has Been Rewritten Through the Western Lens(2023) Garner, Sydney P.; Glassman, HankThis thesis takes a look at erroneous translations as a reflection on Western society because it highlights how there is still a divide between the people with voices and the voiceless. The structure of the thesis will focus on Li Bai’s most famous poem from the Tang Dynasty, “Ballad of a Merchant’s Wife” and compare it to the English translation by Ezra Pound called “The River-Merchant’s Wife: A Letter”. This English translation rewrites the term translation as a manipulation of words. The concept of manipulation parallels with the intentions of cultural appropriation as an exploitive measure that puts minority groups' culture on display for pleasure. Whiteness and white privilege is something that has never changed and is even prevalent within poetry and translation of poetry. I will prove this by including the analysis of Kenneth Goldsmith’s poem inspired by Michael Brown’s autopsy report. So that we may conclude that poetry is a very personal look into the poet and a translation will lose what makes a poem so special, which is their voice.
- ItemFixation and Fate: The Meaning of Obsession in Genji monogatari and Hong lou-meng(2007) Auriti, Alexander; Lin, Pauline; Glassman, Hank
- ItemFragmented Bodies: The Construction and Deconstruction of Chikamatsu’s Plays on the Film Stage(2013) Encabo, Mary; Glassman, HankChikamatsu Monzaemon’s classic bunraku (puppet) plays found their new theater in the younger Japanese film industry of the 1950s and 60s. This fascination with the traditional aspects of Japanese society and life ran parallel to the changes that Japan was experiencing due to Westernization. In order to deepen my understanding of the ways in which film serves as an active space for cultural and even political discourse, I examine three films, all of which are based on Chikamatsu’s works: Chikamatsu Monogatari/Crucified Lovers (directed by Mizoguchi Kenji, 1954), Naniwa no Koi no Monogatari/Chikamatsu’s Love in Osaka (Uchida Tomu, 1959) and Shinjū Ten no Amijima/Double Suicide (Shinoda Masahiro, 1969). I argue that the concern and search for realism is the core of the relationship between traditional theater and film. I use the concept of “fragmentation” as a way to show that the full “picture,” or reality that the directors present, is in fact composed of fragments and that the fragments highlight the problems of society. I unpack the concept further by analyzing three conceptual “bodies.” The aesthetic body focuses on an individual’s place in the social hierarchy. The body as a warzone explores the social problems that surround the individual and the ways in which those problems destroy his relationships. Lastly, the visible invisible body looks into the personifications of fate and challenges the idea that one’s life is predetermined. This analysis ultimately reveals that in addition to being forms of entertainment, period films were used to affirm Japanese identity and question an individual’s relationship to society.
- ItemFrom the Imperial Rescript to Yasukuni Shrine: Promotion of Japanese Nationalism via Confucianism and Shinto in the Prewar Period(2021) Kozarsky, Scott Chikuo; Glassman, HankThe Imperial Rescript on Education of 1890 was far more than a simple decree outlining educational priorities. Rather, it was a defining document that sought to describe for the first time what it means to be Japanese. Drawing heavily upon traditional values of Confucianism, the Imperial Rescript lays out the meaning of national identity and morality in the view of the Japanese government. In doing so, the Rescript sets the stage for unification of the nation behind a common cause of becoming a more powerful force on the world stage. A major part of achieving greater recognition both within East Asia and in the eyes of the West was rapid militarization, a significant undertaking that was made possible by rallying the enthusiasm of the people through participation in rituals derived from traditional Shinto beliefs. Combined with presentation of propaganda, these efforts to garner support for the government's causes via indoctrination of beliefs resulted in the construction of a deep sense of nationalism that has long outlived the militarism it was once used to justify and, in some respects, persists to this day. This thesis will recount the process by which traditional beliefs were adapted to engender nationalism and eventually fuel direct militaristic action. Though nobly dying for the emperor on a battlefield and becoming a war god is an idea of the past, some Confucian and Shinto sentiments from prewar nationalist messaging still have a place in defining Japanese identity. It is important to gain an understanding of this consequential, yet somewhat taboo prewar time as history can serve as an important reminder to not repeat mistakes of the past.
- ItemHadashi no Gen and the Bomb: An Exploration of the Formulation and Impact of the Collective Memory of the Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima from the Post War Moment until Present(2014) Hayden, Kathryn; Glassman, HankOn August 6th, 1945, when the United States dropped the atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima, Japan became the first nation to endure a nuclear attack. After the conclusion of the Second World War, the memory of this nuclear atrocity was the founding point of Japan's victim consciousness. Among those who survived the attack was the manga artist Keiji Nakazawa. Seeking to foster a work that would provide space for Japanese to critically reflect upon this memory of Hiroshima, Nakazawa created a ten volume manga series, Hadashi no Gen (Barefoot Gen). Gen leaves the reader with two central points for further reflection: Japan needs to reflect on the ways in which it was a victim of a nuclear atrocity, but also upon the ways in which Imperial Japan was an aggressor in many parts of Asia. Second, Nakazawa calls for America to take responsibility and acknowledge the harm that was committed against Hiroshima when the atomic bomb was dropped. Using these two points of reflection as a catalyst, I explore the ways in which a collective memory of Hiroshima could be formulated that would open new pathways for reconciliation between Japan, its Asian neighbors, and the United States. I conclude that in order for Japan to fully be able to confront its past, the United States must first make efforts to apologize for bombing Hiroshima.
- ItemHikikomori: A Misunderstood Phenomenon(2015) Guadalupe, Amanda; Glassman, Hank; Jiang, YonglinIn Japanese media, culture, and society, the idea of hikikomori is glorified, inaccurate, and misunderstood. There are a plethora of images in Japanese media that depict men and women in their homes, purposefully separating themselves from society and happily enjoying their lives playing games, sleeping, and watching TV all day. The word hikikomori within the past two decades has evolved fiom its daily use in Japanese language, to a lm·gely spectated phenomenon in Japanese culture connected with one specific image or identity. The phenomenon has integrated itself into Japanese culture, and is seen as negative social n01m. The tmth of the matter is hikikomori are real people who have issues that need to be taken seriously case by case. Unforhmately, because of its ambiguity and the confusing in1ages related to the te1m, that reality is lost. The purpose of this tlhesis is to analyze the misconceptions brought on by Japanese society and culture, and separate fact from fiction. This thesis will also analyze the hikikomori phenomenon from multiple perspectives in order to create a better understanding of a phenomenon that is easily judged.
- ItemJapanese Emigration to the United States and Cross-cultural Identity Formation(2012) Olmon, Sydney; Glassman, HankThe first group of Issei in the United States left Japan from the beginning of the Meiji Period through the time of the Immigration Act of 1924. The experiences of these first generation Japanese Americans were extremely varied. Two examples of Issei from this period are Umeko Tsuda and Michiko Tanaka. Tsuda moved to the United States in 1871, and lived there from when she was six years old until she was seventeen. Tanaka moved to the United States in 1923 and remained there for the rest of her life. Tsuda returned to Japan with the goal of educating Japanese women and eventually established her own college for women. Tanaka started a large family of Japanese- Americans. Through comparing the lives of these two women, a greater understanding of Issei identity formation is established. The comparison of Tsuda and Tanaka is done largely through the lens of religion, as Tsuda was a Christian and Tanaka was a Buddhist, and religion played a large role in forming their opinions and identity. Though the experiences of both women were different, they both formed a Japanese-American identity that did not place one culture as inherently better than the other. The study of their lives in the United States and Japan shows general patterns of identity formation in Issei during that time period and demonstrates how the level of assimilation in a specific culture does not necessarily signify which culture the Issei feels more connected to.
- ItemJapanese Literati: Chinese Themes in the Development of Scholarly Life Style in Edo-period Japan(2012) Chen, Yanrong; Glassman, HankAlthough both China and Japan had a tradition of four categories of people, it has been commonly believed that Japan, unlike China, did not have a literati class. However, by carefully analyzing the influence Chinese culture had on Japanese culture, we can see that Japanese people from various classes were profoundly familiar with the literati culture of China. The literati culture that was adopted in Japan includes Confucianism, Daoism, eremitic culture, and poetry. It was spread in Japan as indigenous literature culture and pictorialized Chinese themes. The literati culture, especially the Confucian doctrine, was tightly associated with politics under the reign of the warrior class particularly the Tokugawa shogunate. In addition, the patronage from the warrior class contributed to the development of Japanese indigenous literati culture. Kano school, the appointed official school served as a promulgator for the Tokugawa shogunate, supporting the legitimacy of its rule. Moreover, the school and its students became the educators and gradually disseminated the literati culture throughout Japan. The profound relationship between China and Japan in terms of literature and arts had developed over centuries. This relationship became the factor which inspired the prosperity of literati culture in Edo-period Japan. It also became the basis of knowledge when literati school flourished in the mid and late Edo-period. The literati culture that was accepted in Japan was more an ideology and a lifestyle and less a transmission of skills and techniques. Therefore, regardless of the significant difference in terms of techniques and styles between the Kano school and literati painters, we can conclude that a literati culture developed in Japan and was accepted by both amateur and professional artists in the Edo-period.
- ItemLeaving the Past and Reaching for a New Future: The Changing Minds of Current Generation Zainichi Koreans(2010) Park, Jennifer; Lin, Pauline; Glassman, HankThe world contains various groups of individuals where they struggle to fit in to society due to their 'different' ethnicity. This paper discusses the unique case of Zainichi Koreans, Koreans residing in Japan, who struggle from racial discrimination despite the fact that these members appear the same on the outside, no different than the Japanese individuals. Given the history, the quality of life differs from first generation to current generation Zainichi Koreans, and their perspectives on their identities have changed over time as well. Through analyzing the novel GO, a story about a third generation Zainichi Korean teenager and his struggles as a Korean Japanese, the paper explores the changing minds of current Zainichi Koreans on how they view their future and identity. They no longer want to live in the past and strive for a better life with no discrimination, a change that should begin from their way of thinking. The paper concludes by addressing the issue of diversity and how it is spreading and making its way through homogeneous societies in East Asia, which suggests that diversity is no longer a means to discriminate against but rather an issue to embrace and celebrate.
- ItemManga as Cross-cultural Literature: The Effects of Translation on Cultural Perceptions(2012) Dudley, Joanna; Glassman, HankIn recent years, manga, anime and other elements of Japanese pop culture have gained increasing popularity in the United States. This has led to a wider awareness of Japanese culture through the appropriation of these pop culture materials as a source of cultural information. Manga, in particular, provides visual as well as linguistic examples of Japanese culture, and thus has the potential to be an excellent source of cultural knowledge, perhaps even suitable for classroom use. However, as with any cross-cultural text, manga's ability to serve as an example of Japanese culture depends heavily on how it is translated. Currently, most manga is translated for the purpose of entertainment, not scholarly discussion. Consequently, there is considerable push from publishing companies to gloss translations with Western ideas and cultural norms, on the assumption that the stories will then be more accessible to readers and have higher sales. Unfortunately, with growing awareness of the Japanese origins of manga, rewriting can instead lead to widespread misunderstanding of Japanese culture as being very similar to Western culture, especially when the series pointedly retain their Japanese setting. This loss of cultural context and the misconceptions it encourages on the international stage are here exemplified through a case study of the English translation of the sports manga, The Prince of Tennis.
- ItemNew Half: Japanese Transsexuals and Their Place in Japanese Literature and Society(2010) Suhardjo, Inez; Glassman, Hank; Lin, PaulineIn 2008, amidst the continued presence of gays and transsexuals in Japanese media after the "gay boom" of the 1990s, a "New Half' transsexual individual by the name of Tsubaki Ayana wrote a memoir entitled Watashi, Danshikou Shusshin Desu (I Went to a Boys' School), which describes her experience growing up in "the wrong body"--that is, with the male-attributed penis even though she has never considered herself male. The main purpose of this paper is to determine the place that Tsubaki's work has within the body of gay literature, and to trace the ways that gay literature has been shaped throughout different times and within different societies. In doing so, this paper ultimately shows that a link that is amorphous and indefinite--but unquestionably present--exists between works of literature, the historical times that they come from, and the social spaces that they occupy.
- ItemPower Play in Heian Japan: Sei Shonagon's Makura no sashi(2010) Barndt, Jillian; Glassman, HankWithin the Heian period, nikki bungaku, diary literature, began to be produced in great numbers. Written by female members of the court, the prime purpose of nikki was their use as a form of political power. As there was a known audience prior to the writing of nikki, authors would highlight their friends and families within the text, in order for them to receive more prominence within the court. Sei Shonagon's Makura no sashi is one such text, which she used to highlight her patroness, the Empress Sadako, who had fallen into disgrace in the late-tenth century. Sei's use of power within her text is compared to Murasaki Shikibu's Murasaki shikibu nikki, produced in the beginning of the tenth-century, but focusing on the birth of Fujiwara no Michinaga's grandchild. Despite the differences in these two texts, the main purpose, to promote others, remains strong.